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Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is the modern term used to refer to the cumulative long term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and subconcussive blows to the head (McKee et al., 2009). The classic symptoms of impaired cognition, mood, behavior, and motor skills also have been reported in professional football players (Yi, Padalino, Chin, Montenegro, & Cantu, 2013). At present, CTE can only be definitively diagnosed by post-mortem examination of brain tissue (McKee et al., 2016). Researchers and scientists are working to formulate in vivo detection methods using brain imaging.
McKee, A., Cantu, R., Nowinski, C., Hedley-Whyte, E., Gavett, B., Budson, A., Santini, V., Lee, H., Kubilus, C., Stern, R.. (2009). "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy After Repetitive Head Injury." Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. 68(7): 709-735.
McKee, A., Cairns, N., Dickson, D., Folkerth, R., Keene, C., Litvan, I., Perl, D., Stein, T., Vonsattel, J., Stewart, W., Tripodis, Y., Crary, J., Bieniek, K., Dams-O'Connor, K., Alvarez, V., Gordon, W.. (2016). "The first NINDS/NIBIB consensus meeting to define neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy." Acta Neuropathologica. 131(1): 75-86.
Yi, J., Padalino, D., Chin, L., Montenegro, P., Cantu, R.. (2013). "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy." Current Sports Medicine Reports. 12(1): 28-32