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    Physical

    Education

    Standards of

    Learning

     

    for

    Virginia

    Public Schools

     

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    Board of Education

    Commonwealth of Virginia

     

    January 2015

     

     

    Preface

    The 2015 Physical Education Standards of Learning represent the Virginia Board of Education’s ongoing commitment to ensure rigorous, relevant physical education standards that reflect current disciplinary knowledge and research to prepare all students to be capable, responsible, and self-reliant citizens in a global society. Knowledge about human movement is fundamental to optimizing health and performance and preventing injury and illness. As the United States struggles to rein in its growing $2.7 trillion healthcare bill, leading national public health, medical, and government organizations and agencies have called on schools to adopt more strategies to help children participate in high-quality physical education and physical activity to improve the public’s health and to prevent and control chronic diseases.

     

    In an increasingly sedentary world, schools provide the best opportunity for a population-based approach to enhance the physical, mental, and social development of every child through learning and engaging in a variety of motor skills. In “Make a Difference at Your School,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviewed scientific evidence and included 10 school-based strategies to prevent obesity. One of the recommended strategies is implementation of a high-quality course of study in physical education as the cornerstone of a comprehensive approach to promoting physical activity through schools. This not only provides opportunities for students to be active during the school day, but also helps them develop the knowledge, attitudes, skills, behaviors, and confidence needed to be physically active for life. 

     

    The 2015 standards reflect a comprehensive approach to learning and more accurately describe the developmental nature of understanding human movement concepts and attainment of skills (Motor Skill Development). Student knowledge of anatomical structures and functions has been scaffolded to provide context for improving skills (Anatomical Basis of Movement). The inclusion of anatomy and physiology concepts extends health-education knowledge, helps students understand movement, and prepares students for biology and other courses related to health sciences. The topics of personal fitness planning and physically active lifestyles have been combined to reinforce and emphasize that a person cannot have personal fitness without a physically active lifestyle. The addition of the concept of energy balance is essential for understanding the need for caloric intake to support body functioning and caloric expenditure for optimal cognitive and physical performance and healthy weight. Understanding energy balance provides the foundational knowledge necessary to empower students to think critically about their nutrition and activity choices and changing needs throughout life. The CDC document lists “knowledge, attitudes, skills, behaviors, and confidence” as important for high-quality physical education programs, and these skills are reflected in the Social Development strand. The 2015 standards change the fourth strand from Responsible Behaviors to Social Development to shift the emphasis on compliant behaviors to a focus on the knowledge and skill sets that students need to communicate, collaborate with others, and to be contributing participants in the larger community. 

     

     


    INTRODUCTION

    Physical education is an academic discipline that involves the study of human movement and its impact on health and quality of life. Physical education and physical activity have short- and long-term influences on the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial health and development of children and adolescents. Physical education in schools provides all students access to standards-based instruction that promotes health literacy, and the motivation to engage in the health-enhancing physical activity needed to achieve and maintain a balanced, healthy life. Physical education areas of study include human anatomy, physiology, exercise science, and kinesiology needed to apply discipline-specific biomechanical concepts critical to the development of physically literate individuals; psychology and socio-cultural analysis of functional fitness and sport; and other health-related fields in kinesiology.

     

    The Physical Education Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools identify the academic content for the essential concepts, processes, and skills for physical education in kindergarten through grade twelve. These standards provide school divisions and teachers with a guide for creating aligned curricula and learning experiences in physical education to help students understand the benefits of achieving and maintaining a physically active lifestyle and learn the skills necessary for performing a variety of physical activities.

     

    Physical education is unique in that it focuses on learning about and learning through physical activity. It offers many opportunities for students to build positive interpersonal relationships, improve self-esteem, communicate effectively, set goals, apply strategies to enhance performance, exercise self-management skills, collaborate, and develop a sense of social responsibility. It also provides a meaningful foundation for further study in preparation for careers related to the health sciences, sport and exercise science, education, recreation and leisure industries, physical performance, coaching, and fitness and community health management.

     

    The physical education standards are grouped into five overarching content strands: Motor Skill Development, Anatomical Basis of Movement, Fitness Planning, Social Development, and Energy Balance. The standards in each strand are sequenced to progress in complexity from grade level to grade level. Achieving the performance expectations from the previous grade level serves as the foundation for attaining the benchmarks at the next level. The standards are intended to provide students with the necessary knowledge, processes, and skills to become physically educated, physically fit, socially competent, and able to make healthy choices for a lifetime.

    Goals and Strands

    The purpose of physical education is to develop physically-literate students – students who acquire the knowledge, processes, skills, and confidence needed to make healthy decisions and engage in meaningful physical activity both in the present and for a lifetime.  As a result of physical education instruction, the student will be able to:

    • Acquire, apply, and evaluate movement concepts and strategies to respond confidently, competently, and creatively in a variety of physical activity settings.
    • Access, evaluate, and synthesize health-related information to protect, enhance, and advocate for health, well-being, safety, and participation in physical activity across a lifespan.
    • Enjoy and engage in regular movement-based learning experiences and understand and appreciate their significance to personal, social, cultural, and environmental health practices and outcomes.

     

    The content of the Standards of Learning for physical education is organized around the following five essential strands of health and physical development and application:

     

    1.   Demonstrate competence in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. (Motor Skill Development)

    This strand focuses student learning on the development and demonstration of competence in motor skills and a variety of movement forms, increasing the likelihood of participation in physical activities. Students will have movement experiences that build competent and confident movers through acquisition, performance, and refinement of movement skills in a variety of developmental, tactical, and cooperative activities. Movement competence is defined as the development of sufficient skill and ability to ensure successful performance in a variety of physical activities. In the elementary years, students develop maturity and adaptability in the use of fundamental motor skills and patterns that are then further refined and combined during the middle school years. As motor patterns become more refined and proficient throughout the middle years, they can be transitioned into specialized skills and patterns and used in more complex learning settings. High school students will demonstrate a level of competence in several physical activities that they are likely to continue beyond graduation.

     

    2.   Apply knowledge of the structures and functions of the body and how they relate to and are affected by human movement to learning and developing motor skills and specialized movement forms. (Anatomical Basis of Movement)

     

    This strand focuses student learning on understanding basic anatomy and physiology along with movement concepts and principles, to improve motor skills. While the skilled-movement goal involves learning how to perform physical activities skillfully, this goal directs students toward learning about movement. Concepts and principles from various fields of study support skillful movement performance. These fields of study include motor control, exercise physiology, and biomechanics/kinesiology. Active learning experiences will connect the anatomical content with activities being performed. Elementary students establish basic musculoskeletal vocabulary and use simple concepts as they develop their movements. Middle school students learn and apply more complex concepts of human movement. High school students develop a working knowledge of human anatomy and physiology concepts and principles, enabling them to independently apply concepts in order to acquire new skills or enhance existing skills. 

     

    3.   Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of personal fitness. (Fitness Planning)

     

    This strand focuses student learning on understanding the relationship between a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and the prevention of chronic disease. The intent is for students to explain the importance of fitness and active lifestyles, to be able to evaluate personal fitness levels, and to create an appropriate fitness plan with goals, activities, and timelines that will maintain and improve their levels of physical fitness.  Recommended criterion-referenced wellness testing includes Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), cadence push-ups, cadence curl-ups, back-saver sit and reach, and trunk lift. Elementary students become aware of health-related fitness components (aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition), and engage in a variety of physical activities, and develop a basic fitness plan. Middle school students continue to learn about the components of fitness: how they are developed and improved, how they interrelate, and how they contribute to overall fitness to develop and implement a personal fitness plan. High school students plan, implement, evaluate, and modify a personal, goal-driven fitness plan that enables them to achieve and maintain the level of fitness needed to meet their personal goals for various work-related, sport, and leisure activities.

     

    4.   Demonstrate the aptitude, attitude, and skills to lead responsible, fulfilling, and respectful lives(Social Development)

     

    This strand focuses student learning on the skills and behaviors that lead to personal and group success in physical activity, both in school and settings outside of school. Students will explain and apply skills for communication, cooperation, conflict resolution, goal setting and attainment, critical and creative thinking, resilience, and self-directed learning. Students will explain and demonstrate the importance of and ability to be safe in a variety of activities.  Elementary students recognize and use rules and procedures, focus on safety, respect similarities and dissimilarities, and cooperate with others. Middle school students participate cooperatively with others and understand reasons for rules and procedures. High school students initiate and exhibit responsible behaviors and positively impact the behaviors of others in physical activity settings inside and outside of school.

     

    5.   Explain the importance of energy balance and nutritional needs of the body to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease. (Energy Balance)

     

    This strand focuses student learning on energy balance (nutrition and fitness concepts – functional fitness) and explains the importance of energy balance for physical health and chronic disease prevention. This includes physical activity guidelines, types of physical activity needed for energy balance, importance of physical activity, health-related components of fitness, nutrition guidelines, meal planning, screen time, and sleep. Elementary students understand the basic nutrition and fitness concepts of energy balance. The middle school student will extend learning of energy balance, to include nutrition, fitness concepts, physical activity, health-related components of fitness, nutrition guidelines, meal planning, screen time, and sleep and will explain the connection to personal health and fitness. The high school student will explain the importance of energy balance and nutritional needs of the body to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease for the present and into the adult years.

     

    The combination of these five strands leads students toward being able to lead an active, healthy lifestyle skillfully, knowledgeably, responsibly, and vigorously.

     

    Safety

     

    Safety must be given the highest priority in implementing the K-12 instructional program for physical education. A safe learning environment is essential to a successful program. Indoor and outdoor equipment and facilities should be inspected on a regular basis, and teachers should be prepared for any potential emergency. Correct and safe techniques, as well as wise selection of activities, resources, materials, and learning experiences appropriate to age levels, must be carefully considered for every instructional activity. Safe physical education learning environments require thorough planning, careful management, and constant monitoring of student behaviors and activities. Class enrollment should not exceed the designated capacity for the activity or classroom space.

     

    While no comprehensive list exists to cover all situations, the following should be considered to minimize potential safety problems.

    • Appropriate supervision should be provided at all times.
    • Rules and routines should be established to ensure the safety of each student.
    • All students should wear footwear that is supportive, secured to the foot, and that provides good traction.
    • There should be obstacle-free space and buffer zones between courts/playing areas and/or teaching stations.
    • Walls behind all baskets in a gymnasium should have matting affixed to them.
    • Field space should be routinely inspected for obstacles and safety hazards. Any found should be reported immediately for repair or removal.
    • Courts should be swept regularly and kept free of dirt and dust.
    • Appropriate safety equipment should be worn during instruction, practice, and activity (e.g., shin guards, goggles).
    • Adequate space should be provided for activity and number of participants.
    • Equipment should be age-appropriate and modified equipment should be used when appropriate.
    • Equipment should be inspected prior to each class session, or at least daily, depending on use.
    • Unused equipment should be removed from playing areas.
    • Students should engage in proper warm-ups and cool-downs.
    • First-aid supplies, emergency contact information, and injury control protocols should be readily accessible.

    Kindergarten

    Participating in a variety of movement experiences to develop fundamental movement patterns is the primary focus of the kindergarten physical education curriculum. While children at this level vary in maturity across all movement skills, they should demonstrate continuous improvement in movement under very simple conditions. While developing fundamental skill patterns, students begin to learn key movement concepts that help them perform in a variety of educational games, dances, and gymnastics. They learn how their bodies react to vigorous physical activity. Students learn to use safe practices, cooperate with and respect others, and follow classroom rules. Experiences in physical education help them develop a positive attitude for leading a healthy, active lifestyle.

    Motor Skill Development

    K.1   The student will demonstrate progress toward the mature form of selected locomotor, non- locomotor, and manipulative skills to understand the various ways the body can move.

    a)      Demonstrate and differentiate between walking, running, hopping, galloping, and jumping.

    b)      Demonstrate bending, pushing, pulling, turning, and balancing on one foot.

    c)      Demonstrate approaching-mature form (at least two critical elements: which are small, isolated parts of the whole skill or movement) used in stationary manipulative skills for tossing and throwing underhand to targets, bounce and catch, toss and catch, kicking stationary ball to target, striking stationary object with paddle, dribbling, rolling ball underhand to target, trapping and volleying with hand.

    d)      Demonstrate a minimum of two critical elements used in manipulative skills while moving, to include dribbling with continuous kick (taps) of ball while walking.

    e)      Demonstrate moving to a beat and to rhythmic patterns using basic locomotor and non-locomotor rhythmic patterns.

    f)       Demonstrate moving forward, sideways, and in side-to-side directions.

    g)      Demonstrate moving at low, medium, and high levels.

    h)      Demonstrate traveling in straight, curving, and zigzagging pathways.

    i)        Demonstrate fast, slow, and moderate speeds.

    j)        Demonstrate jumping over a stationary rope and a self-turn single jump.

    k)      Demonstrate one roll (narrow or curled).

     

    Anatomical Basis of Movement

    K.2   The student will identify basic structures of the body and basic spatial awareness concepts.

    a)      Explain that the body has muscles and bones that help the body move.

    b)      Identify that the heart as a special muscle that helps the body move.

    c)      Explain that moving faster makes the heart beat faster.

    d)      Demonstrate the concept of personal space.

     

    Fitness Planning

    K.3    The student will identify basic fitness concepts.

    a)      Explain that physical activity helps the body grow.

    b)      Identify activities that can be done at home to keep the body healthy.

    c)      Identify physical activities that are done with family and with friends for fun.

     

    Social Development

    K.4   The student will use appropriate behaviors and safe practices in physical activity settings.

    a)      Demonstrate cooperative and safe play.

    b)      Demonstrate general and personal space.

    c)      Identify three classroom (procedural) rules.

     

    Energy Balance

    K.5   The student will identify basic concepts of energy balance.

    a)      Explain that food provides energy for movement.

    b)      Identify one fruit and one vegetable.

    c)      Explain that fruits and vegetables help the body keep moving.

     


    Grade One

    Students in grade one refine locomotor skills and further develop fundamental non-locomotor and manipulative skills in educational games, dance, and gymnastics. They continue to develop an understanding of key concepts and anatomical basis of movement principles and link these concepts and principles to their movement. Students explore and experiment with a range of movement experiences in a variety of environmental contexts, with the goal of becoming confident and competent movers. Students relate participation in vigorous physical activity to changes in the body, to enjoyment, and to improving their health and wellness. They further their understanding of the importance of physical activity and energy balance (nutrition) in their lives. As students increase their understanding of movement, they gain a deeper understanding of how the body moves. Students continue to develop socially as they work safely alone and in groups. The natural enjoyment of physical activity should be reinforced and complemented by a variety of educational game, dance, and gymnastic activities in which students learn and are successful.

    Motor Skill Development

    1.1    The student will demonstrate approaching mature form and the correct critical elements (small, isolated parts of the whole skill or movement) of locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills.

    a)      Demonstrate critical elements used and distinguish between galloping, leaping, skipping, and sliding.

    b)      Demonstrate non locomotor skills of twisting, curling, bending, stretching, and balancing on different body parts.

    c)      Demonstrate approaching mature forms (at least two critical elements) for use in manipulative skills (e.g., rolling ball underhand to target, underhand throw to targets, underhand toss and catch to self and with a partner, dribbling with hand in general space, dribbling with foot, kicking stationary ball to target, striking stationary object with hand or with short-handled implement, throwing underhand, volleying object upward with various body parts).

    d)      Demonstrate at least two critical elements for the manipulative skills of catching, throwing underhand, striking, dribbling, and kicking, while moving.

    e)      Demonstrate simple educational gymnastic skills, to include balancing at different levels, two different rolls (narrow or curled), moving in two different directions, and transfer of weight.

    f)       Demonstrate moving to a beat or rhythmic pattern in personal (self-space) and general space.

    g)      Perform a teacher-led dance.

    h)      Demonstrate forward, sideways, backwards (slow), and side-to-side directions.

    i)        Demonstrate low, medium, and high levels.

    j)        Demonstrate straight, curving, and zigzagging pathways.

    k)      Demonstrate fast, slow, and moderate speed movements.

    l)        Demonstrate consecutive jumps (more than one) with a self-turn rope.

    m)    Demonstrate consecutive jumps with a long rope (student-turn).

    Anatomical Basis of Movement

    1.2    The student will identify basic anatomical structures and basic spatial awareness concepts.

    a)      Identify where the brain is located.

    b)      Explain that muscles attach to bones to help the body move.

    c)      Describe how the heart and lungs work together to keep the body moving.

    d)      Explain that the heart is a muscle that grows stronger with movement.

    e)      Demonstrate appropriate use of personal and general space.

    Fitness Planning

    1.3    The student will identify changes in the body that occur during moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

    a)      Identify activities to do at home to help the body move and grow.

    b)      Identify one activity that increases heart and breathing rates to make the heart stronger.

    c)      Describe and demonstrate activity at two or more intensity levels.

    Social Development  

    1.4    The student will demonstrate basic knowledge and skills for safe and cooperative play, individually and with others, without reminders from teacher.

    a)      Work cooperatively, and demonstrate safe equipment use with peers.

    b)      Demonstrate safety rules for activity.

    c)      Demonstrate safe use of space.

    d)      Identify classroom (procedural) rules.

    Energy Balance

    1.5    The student will identify basic nutrition concepts of energy balance.

    a)      Name the food groups as identified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

    b)      Name one food from each (USDA) food group.

    c)      Explain that the body needs water.

    d)      Explain that physical activity uses energy from foods.


    Grade Two

    Students in grade two focus on mature patterns, not on traditional games, while participating in a variety of movement experiences to develop fundamental motor skills and patterns. They vary movement patterns and begin to combine skills in educational game, dance, and gymnastic activities. Students progress in skill development and in understanding key elements of fundamental movement skills, including movement concepts, major muscles and bones, health-related fitness concepts, energy balance concepts, and the benefits of physical activity. Students work cooperatively and responsibly in groups and begin to build skills to meet movement challenges. They participate in physical activities at school and identify opportunities to participate in regular physical activity outside of school.

    Motor Skill Development

    2.1   The student will demonstrate approaching (at least two critical elements) and mature form (all correct critical elements) of locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills.

    a)      Demonstrate individually and with a partner the mature forms of manipulative skills for underhand throwing, catching underhand tossed or thrown ball, kicking/passing stationary ball to a partner or to a target, foot dribble with control while walking, striking, consecutive upward volleying with hand(s), and stationary hand dribbling.

    b)      Demonstrate a simple educational gymnastic sequence, including balance, roll, transfer of weight from feet to hands, and flight.

    c)      Demonstrate moving to a rhythm by performing basic dance sequences (teacher- or student-led dances).

    d)      Demonstrate mature form for hop, jump, leap, skip, run, jog, gallop, and slide.

    e)      Demonstrate and differentiate between jogging and running.

    f)       Demonstrate manipulative skills using increased force (hard) and decreased force (soft) with control.

    g)      Demonstrate mature form for jumping forward with self-turn rope and jumping with long rope (student turn).

    h)      Demonstrate approaching mature form (at least two critical elements) for overhand throw, dribbling with dominant/preferred hand while walking, kicking moving ball, striking ball/object with short-handled implement upward and forward, striking/batting ball off tee, and jumping backward with self-turn rope.

    Anatomical Basis of Movement

    2.2       The student will identify major musculoskeletal structures and the cardiorespiratory system and explain the importance of spatial awareness while moving.

    a)      Describe the concept of relationships (e.g., over, under, around, in front of, behind, through) in dynamic movement situations.

    b)      Explain the importance of spatial awareness (personal and general space) in static and dynamic movement situations.

    c)      Explain that the brain sends a message to the body to move.

    d)      Identify major muscles, to include quadriceps, biceps, abdominals, and heart.

    e)      Explain that muscles tense to keep the body in a balanced position.

    f)       Identify major bones, to include skull, ribs, and spine.

    g)      Identify the major structures of the cardiorespiratory system (heart and lungs).

     

    Fitness Planning

    2.3    The student will describe the components of fitness and identify physical activities that promote aerobic capacity, muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, and body composition.

    a)      Describe muscular strength as important in lifting /moving heavy objects.

    b)      Describe muscular endurance as important in moving throughout the day.

    c)      Describe flexibility as important in moving in many directions.

    d)      Describe cardiorespiratory endurance as important for maintaining a healthy heart.

    e)      Describe body composition as the components that make up a person’s body weight (percentages of fat, bone, water, and muscle in the human body).

    f)       Identify one activity to promote each component of fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition).

    g)      Identify opportunities to participate in regular physical activity outside of school.

    Social Development

    2.4    The student will identify and apply cooperative, respectful, and safe behaviors in physical activity settings.

    a)      Identify one activity that is enjoyed and done outside of physical education class.

    b)      Identify one activity that is challenging and one way to improve the activity.

    c)      Demonstrate cooperative skills, to include taking turns and sharing equipment.

    d)      Demonstrate safe participation individually and with others.

    e)      Identify two class safety rules.

    Energy Balance

    2.5    The student will describe the energy intake components of energy balance and physical health and development.

    a)      Explain that dairy is important for bone growth.

    b)      Identify examples of healthy snacks.

    c)      Identify different hydration choices.

    d)      Explain that choosing nutritious foods and being physically active are components of being healthy.

     

     
    Grade Three

    Skill development remains a central focus for students in grade three as they begin to accept feedback from and provide appropriate feedback to others. Students refine, vary, and combine skills in complex situations and demonstrate more proficient movement patterns in educational games, dance, and gymnastic activities to become confident and competent movers. Students identify critical elements (small, isolated parts of the whole skill or movement) and apply them in their movement. They develop fitness knowledge and can relate regular physical activity to energy balance and health benefits. Students continue to build knowledge of body structures and systems. They know safe practices, rules, and procedures and apply them with little or no reinforcement. Students work cooperatively with peers and understand that there are many differences in movement skill and ability levels among their classmates.

     

    Motor Skill Development

    3.1    The student will demonstrate mature form (all critical elements) for a variety of skills and apply skills in increasingly complex movement activities.

    a)      Demonstrate the critical elements for overhand throw and catch using a variety of objects; control, stop, and kick ball to stationary and moving partners/objects; dribble with dominant/preferred hand/foot; pass a ball to a moving partner; strike ball/object with short handled implement upward and forward; strike/bat ball off tee (correct grip, side to target, hip rotation); jump/land horizontally (distance) and vertically (height).

    b)      Demonstrate a self-turn rope sequence of four different jumps.

    c)      Demonstrate simple dances in various formations.

    d)      Perform an educational gymnastic sequence with balance, transfer of weight, travel, and change of direction.

    e)      Create and perform a dance sequence with different locomotor patterns, levels, shapes, pathways, and flow.

    Anatomical Basis of Movement

    3.2    The student will identify major structures of the body, to include body systems, muscles, and bones, and identify basic movement principles.

    a)      Apply the concept of open space while moving.

    b)      Identify major muscles, to include hamstrings and triceps.

    c)      Describe the components and function of the cardiorespiratory system, to include heart, lungs, and blood vessels.

    d)      Identify major bones, to include femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, and ulna.

    e)      Name one activity and the muscles and bones that help the body perform the activity.

    Fitness Planning

    3.3    The student will ­describe the components and measures of health-related fitness.

    a)      Explain the health-related components of fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition).

    b)      Identify one measure for each component of health-related fitness.

    c)      Demonstrate one activity for each component of health-related fitness.

    d)      Identify that there are levels of intensity in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA).

    Social Development

    3.4    The student will demonstrate an understanding of the purposes for rules, procedures, and respectful behaviors, while in various physical activity settings.

    a)      Explain the importance of rules for activities.

    b)      Provide input into establishing and demonstrate implementation of rules and guidelines for appropriate behavior in physical activity settings.

    c)      Describe the importance of cooperating and work cooperatively with peers to achieve a goal.

    d)      Implement teacher feedback to improve performance.

    e)      Provide appropriate feedback to a classmate.

    f)       Describe one group physical activity to participate in for enjoyment.

     

    Energy Balance

    3.5    The student will describe energy balance.          

    a)      Explain that energy balance relates to good nutrition (energy in) and physical activity (energy out).

    b)      Identify one food per group to create a healthy meal that meets USDA guidelines.

    c)      Identify healthy hydration choices and the amount of water needed for the body to function, using the formula one ounce of water per two pounds of body weight.

    d)      Identify the macronutrients (fat, protein, carbohydrates).

    e)      Identify foods that are healthy sources of each macronutrient.


    Grade Four

    In grade four, students make continuous progress across all fundamental motor patterns. Proficient movement patterns are possible as students combine locomotor and manipulative skills in increasingly complex situations. Students create sequences in educational dances and gymnastics. They apply movement concepts and principles and knowledge of anatomical structures in individual movement performances, and tactical strategies in modified activities. Fitness assessment is appropriate at this grade level, and students interpret the results of their assessments and set personal goals based on the results. Students exhibit appropriate etiquette, integrity, and conflict-resolution skills; and they apply proper rules and procedures.

    Motor Skill Development

    4.1    The student will refine movement skills and demonstrate the ability to combine them in increasingly complex movement environments/activities.

    a)      Demonstrate mature form for specialized locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skill combinations in game and modified sports activities, to include overhand throw and catch with a partner while moving, overhand throw to a target for distance, dribbling and passing soccer ball with varying speed while moving, dribbling with non-dominant/non-preferred hand walking and dominant/preferred hand at various speeds, catching thrown objects, striking a ball with short-handled and long-handled implement, and underhand volley/strike.

    b)      Create and perform a partner dance sequence with an apparent beginning, middle, and end that integrates shapes, levels, pathways, and locomotor patterns.

    c)      Create and perform a continuous educational gymnastic sequence that combines four or more of the following movements: traveling, balancing, rolling, and other types of weight transfer.

    d)      Demonstrate the use of pacing, speed, and endurance in a variety of activities.

    e)      Demonstrate the ability to self-pace in a cardiovascular endurance activity.

    f)       Provide appropriate feedback to a peer to improve performance.

    g)      Create and perform a jump-rope routine (self-turn or long rope).

     

    Anatomical Basis of Movement

    4.2    The student will identify major structures and begin to apply knowledge of anatomy to explain movement patterns.

    a)      Identify and describe the major components of the cardiorespiratory system, to include heart, lungs, and blood vessels.

    b)      Identify major muscle groups, to include deltoid and gluteal.

    c)      Identify major components of the skeletal system, to include sternum, vertebrae, patella, and phalange.

    d)      Locate radial and/or carotid pulse.

    e)      Identify the bones and muscles needed to perform one fitness activity and one skilled movement.

    f)       Identify the concept of closing space during movement sequences.

    Fitness Planning

    4.3    The student will apply knowledge of health-related fitness, gather and analyze data, and set measurable goals to improve fitness levels.

    a)      Describe the components of health-related fitness ­and list associated measurements (cardiorespiratory endurance/aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition).

    b)      Analyze baseline data from a standardized health-related criterion-referenced test (Virginia wellness-related criterion-referenced fitness standards, CDC guidelines).

    c)      Create a SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely) goal for at least one health-related component of fitness to improve or maintain fitness level.

    d)      Identify activities that can be done at school and activities that can be done at home to meet fitness goals.

    e)      Analyze post-fitness testing results, and reflect on goal progress/attainment.

    Social Development  

    4.4    The student will demonstrate positive interactions with others in cooperative and competitive physical activities.

    a)      Identify a group goal and the strategies needed for successful completion while working productively and respectfully with others.

    b)      Identify and demonstrate conflict-resolution strategies for positive solutions in resolving disagreements.

    c)      D­efine etiquette and demonstrate appropriate etiquette and application of rules and procedures.

    d)      Define integrity and describe the importance of integrity in a physical activity setting.

     

    Energy Balance

    4.5    The student will explain the nutrition and activity components of energy balance.

    a)      Identify the number of calories per gram of fat (9), protein (4), and carbohydrates (4).

    b)      Explain the uses of salt and sugar and the harm of excessive salt and sugar intake.

    c)      Describe how the body uses each macronutrient (fat, protein, carbohydrates).

    d)      Calculate the calories per gram of macronutrients for a variety of foods.

    e)      Explain the importance of hydration.

    f)       Compare different hydration choices.

    g)      Explain the role of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for energy balance.


    Grade Five

    Students in grade five apply movement principles and concepts ­and knowledge of anatomical structures and functions to enhance their movement performance, personal fitness, and game strategy and tactics. They develop proficiency in physical activities, dances, and educational gymnastics. Students demonstrate specialized skills alone, with a partner, or in a small group. They access and use resources to plan and improve personal fitness as they exhibit a physically active lifestyle. Students continue to develop responsible personal and social behaviors as they work with others in safe and respectful ways.

    Motor Skill Development

    5.1    The student will demonstrate mature movement forms, create movement patterns, and begin to describe movement principles.

    a)      Demonstrate mature form in locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skill combinations in more complex and dynamic environments and modified sports activities, to include overhand and underhand throw and catch, execution to a target, hand dribble, foot dribble, consecutive striking with a partner over a net or against a wall, and striking a ball while stationary and moving.

    b)      Create and perform an educational gymnastic sequence including travel, roll, balance, and weight transfer, with smooth transitions and changes of direction, shape, speed, and flow.

    c)      Create and perform individual or group rhythm/dance sequences including American and international dances ­and a jump-rope routine (self-turn or long rope).

    d)      Demonstrate use of space in a variety of activities.

    e)      Demonstrate accuracy in a variety of activities.

    f)       Demonstrate use of force in a variety of activities.

    g)      Apply concepts of direction and force to strike an object with purpose and accuracy.

     

    Anatomical Basis of Movement

    5.2    The student will apply anatomical knowledge and movement strategies in complex movement activities.

    a)      Identify components of major body systems, to include cardiorespiratory, vascular, muscular, and skeletal.

    b)      Apply knowledge of body systems, bones, and muscles to accurately describe a variety of specific movements such as a ball strike, overhand throw, or volley.

    c)      Describe concepts of direction and force used to strike an object with purpose and accuracy.

    Fitness Planning

    5.3    The student will use personal fitness assessment data to enhance understanding of physical fitness.

    a)      Identify methods for evaluating and improving personal fitness such as health-related criterion referenced tests, heart rate, body mass index (BMI), and pedometer data.

    b)      Compare and analyze fitness data to health-related criterion-referenced standards (Virginia wellness-related fitness standards, Fitnessgram®, CDC guidelines) to assess levels of personal fitness and identify strengths and weaknesses.

    c)      Create a basic personal fitness plan for at least one health-related component of fitness, to include baseline fitness data, SMART goal, activities that will address the goal, log of activities inside and outside of school, reassessment data (post-data) and reflection of goal progress/attainment.

    d)      Explain the FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principle.

    e)      Calculate resting heart rate and calculate heart rate during a variety of activities.

    f)       Explain the relationship between heart rate and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Social Development

    5.4   The student will participate in establishing and maintaining a safe environment for physical activities.

    a)      Create and implement rules and consequences for one or more activities.

    b)      Create and implement safety rules for at least one activity.

    c)      Create and implement etiquette for one activity.

    d)      Explain the importance of inclusion in physical activity settings.

    e)      Describe and demonstrate respectful behavior in physical activity settings.

    Energy Balance

    5.5   The student will identify and explain the nutrition component and activity guidelines for energy balance.

    a)      Explain RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance).

    b)      Explain that there are different RDA recommendations for children, teens, and adults.

    c)      Explain the effect of portion size on RDA.

    d)      Explain the purpose of vitamins and minerals.

    e)      Evaluate components of food labels for a variety of foods, to include macronutrients, RDA, and portion size.

    f)       Explain that physical activity guidelines recommend 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) every day.



Last Modified on September 10, 2015