Name: 
 

2005 Earth Science



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

A major problem with depending on fossil fuels as primary energy sources is that they are —
a.
overabundant
c.
nonrenewable
b.
nonpolluting
d.
deep underground
 

 2. 


mc002-1.jpg
Which of the following puts the steps of a scientific experiment in the correct order?
a.
2, 1, 3, 4
c.
2, 1, 4, 3
b.
4, 2, 3, 1
d.
2, 3, 1, 4
 

 3. 

Most modern geologists have argued that a global catastrophe may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. According to these scientists, what was this catastrophe?
a.
An asteroid impact with the Earth
c.
A shift in the tilt of the Earth
b.
Melting of the polar ice caps
d.
Earthquakes and volcanoes
 

 4. 

What is the approximate percentage of the Earth that is illuminated by the
sun at any given time?
a.
10%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
90%
 

 5. 

Compared to the Rocky Mountains, the
Appalachian Mountains are much —
a.
older
c.
higher
b.
less eroded
d.
thicker
 

 6. 

mc006-1.jpg
Seismic waves generated by an earthquake at point R are recorded at locations W and X. Which pair of seismographs is more accurate?
a.
mc006-2.jpg
c.
mc006-4.jpg
b.
mc006-3.jpg
d.
mc006-5.jpg
 

 7. 

A volcanic eruption can affect the atmosphere by —
a.
reducing the amount of water vapor in
the atmosphere
c.
clearing away nearby clouds, increasing
the amount of sunshine
b.
adding large quantities of several gases,
such as sulfur dioxide, to the
atmosphere
d.
increasing the amount of oxygen due to
escaping gases
 

 8. 

Which of these will cause the greatest high tides?
a.
mc008-1.jpg
c.
mc008-3.jpg
b.
mc008-2.jpg
d.
mc008-4.jpg
 

 9. 

mc009-1.jpg
Which profile best represents the contour map along the line AB?
a.
mc009-2.jpg
c.
mc009-4.jpg
b.
mc009-3.jpg
d.
mc009-5.jpg
 

 10. 

mc010-1.jpg
Each dot on the above diagram marks the origin of an earthquake. The area with the highest concentration of earthquake origins marks —
a.
a line of Earth’s magnetic field
c.
the path of the subducting tectonic
plate
b.
a seam of soft rock, such as limestone
d.
the location of a developing igneous
intrusion
 

 11. 

Which of these is the best indication of the relative age of a rock layer?
a.
The thickness of the layer
c.
The position of the layer compared to
other layers
b.
The chemical makeup of the layer
d.
The distance the layer extends over the
Earth
 

 12. 

Which mineral is easily identified by smell?
a.
Galena
c.
Quartz
b.
Pyrite
d.
Sulfur
 

 13. 

Which of these pieces of basalt rock has probably been in a river the longest?
a.
mc013-1.jpg
c.
mc013-3.jpg
b.
mc013-2.jpg
d.
mc013-4.jpg
 

 14. 

mc014-1.jpg
In the first picture, the sphere is in a beaker with 100 mL of water. In the second picture, the dry sphere is being massed. Which of the values listed is closest to the density of the black sphere?
a.
0.5 g/mL
c.
1.4 g/mL
b.
0.7 g/mL
d.
2.1 g/mL
 

 15. 

Scientists use the rock cycle to describe the processes by which —
a.
all different types of fossils were
transformed into rock
c.
tectonic plates shift around the earth’s
surface
b.
one type of rock can be changed into
another type of rock
d.
mineral crystals and compositions are
identified
 

 16. 


mc016-1.jpg
According to Mohs Hardness Scale,which of these groups of minerals can scratch fluorite?
a.
Talc, gypsum, and calcite
c.
Apatite, orthoclase, and corundum
b.
Calcite, quartz, and topaz
d.
Diamond, gypsum, and quartz
 

 17. 

The Earth’s mantle is made up of very hot material that rises to the top of the mantle, cools, then sinks, reheats, and rises again, constantly repeating the cycle. This action, which causes the Earth’s crust to move, is known as —
a.
convection currents
c.
hot spots
b.
magnetic fields
d.
advection forces
 

 18. 


mc018-1.jpg
Which layer of the sun is seen during a total solar eclipse?
a.
Chromosphere
c.
Core
b.
Photosphere
d.
Corona
 

 19. 

Barrier islands are low and narrow sandy islands that form a rim offshore from a coastline. These islands protect inland shores from the surf, especially during storms. These islands are becoming increasingly developed because people want to live by the open ocean, yet the islands themselves are not permanent. Why aren’t the islands permanent?
a.
People develop the islands and remove
sand during housing construction.
c.
The wind and the waves are constantly
redistributing the sand.
b.
Offshore earthquakes cause the islands
to sink below sea level.
d.
Development companies mine the sand
for use in inland construction projects.
 

 20. 


mc020-1.jpg
According to the above diagram, the water supply will be most consistent in
well —
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 21. 


mc021-1.jpg
The diagram shown illustrates which geological process?
a.
Faulting
c.
Weathering
b.
Folding
d.
Metamorphism
 

 22. 

In which type of rock are fossils most likely to be found?
a.
Igneous intrusive
c.
Sedimentary
b.
Igneous extrusive
d.
Metamorphic
 

 23. 


mc023-1.jpg
The layer in the above soil profile that has the most humus is —
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 24. 

mc024-1.jpg
The table shows the area and average depth of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Approximately how many times greater is the volume of water in the Pacific Ocean than in the Atlantic Ocean?
a.
2 times
c.
2,000 times
b.
20 times
d.
2,000,000 times
 

 25. 


mc025-1.jpg
Which region of Virginia is classifiedas the Piedmont?
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 26. 


mc026-1.jpg
Which planet has the shortest day?
a.
Mercury
c.
Jupiter
b.
Venus
d.
Saturn
 

 27. 


mc027-1.jpg
Why is the ice shelf floating
?
a.
The ice is melting faster than it can
sink.
c.
The ice is warmer than the ocean water.
b.
The ice is less dense than the ocean
water.
d.
The ocean water is filled with vegetation
that keeps the ice from sinking.
 

 28. 

Which of the following naturalresources makes the largest contribution to Virginia’s economy?
a.
Plutonium
c.
Coal
b.
Aluminum
d.
Feldspar
 

 29. 

While on vacation, a student visits the area around a volcano that has recently erupted. The student can expect to find samples of —
a.
clastic sedimentary rock
c.
chemically formed sedimentary rock
b.
nonfoliated metamorphic rock
d.
extrusive igneous rock
 

 30. 


mc030-1.jpg
The picture shows an infrared composite of the Earth as seen by a weather satellite system. What does the dark shaded area on this map represent?
a.
The moon’s shadow
c.
Nighttime
b.
Thick cloud cover
d.
Ocean currents
 

 31. 


mc031-1.jpg
Based on the above symbols, which of the following represents a wind speed
of 30 knots?
a.
mc031-2.jpg
c.
mc031-4.jpg
b.
mc031-3.jpg
d.
mc031-5.jpg
 

 32. 

Gas and dust in interstellar nebulae
can form —
a.
stars
c.
meteors
b.
comets
d.
asteroids
 

 33. 

Which of the following best describes Earth’s orbital position in our solar system?
a.
Outside of three smaller planets
c.
An outer planet
b.
Outside of the gas giants
d.
An inner planet
 

 34. 


mc034-1.jpg
The map shows the ages of the exposed bedrock in Virginia. Which city sits on
exposed bedrock that is the same age as the rock in Bristol?
a.
Deel
c.
Charlottesville
b.
Harrisonburg
d.
Norfolk
 

 35. 


mc035-1.jpg
The mountain shown is composed of deformed sedimentary layers. They are located near a tectonic plate boundary and are still increasing in elevation due to —
a.
colliding tectonic plates
c.
subduction of a tectonic plate
b.
seafloor spreading of tectonic plates
d.
transform faulting of a tectonic plate
 

 36. 

Release of CFCs and similar compounds are a possible cause of —
a.
destruction of ozone in the upper
atmosphere
c.
greenhouse gas build-up in the lower
atmosphere
b.
acid rain in the northeast U.S.
d.
increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide
concentration
 

 37. 


mc037-1.jpg
In the late 1920s, Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason determined the distance to a number of galaxies and the velocity of those galaxies relative to the Earth. The graph shows the early results that were obtained. What approximate ratio did the scientists calculate between velocity and distance based on these early findings?
a.
150 kilometers per second per one
million light years
c.
450 kilometers per second per one
million light years
b.
300 kilometers per second per one
million light years
d.
600 kilometers per second per one
million light years
 

 38. 


mc038-1.jpg
Based on the drawing above, what is the main reason that Venus would appear brighter at point Q rather than at point R as seen from the Earth?
a.
The planet is closer to the Earth at
point Q than at point R.
c.
The planet appears overhead against a
dark sky when it is at point Q but not
at point R.
b.
More of the visible side of the planet is
illuminated at point Q than at point R.
d.
Light from the planet at point Q is less
affected by the sun’s gravity than at
point R.
 

 39. 

Wind power is not typically used to generate all of the electricity needed for large cities because the —
a.
energy source is inconsistent
c.
fuel expenses are too great
b.
waste products are unsafe
d.
energy produced is not in a usable form
 

 40. 


mc040-1.jpg
Which kind of rock is formed by the
processes shown?
a.
Basaltic
c.
Igneous
b.
Sedimentary
d.
Metamorphic
 

 41. 

People have tried many methods to artificially produce rain. One method, called cloud seeding, involves airplanes dropping particles of silver iodide onto clouds to help the clouds produce rain droplets. These silver iodide particles act as —
a.
hailstones
c.
electrical charges
b.
dew points
d.
condensation nuclei
 

 42. 


mc042-1.jpg
The picture shows the path of a forest fire that started at 5:30 A.M. It travels at 1 km/h. About how long will it be before the fire reaches the ranger station?
a.
30 minutes
c.
2 hours
b.
1 hour
d.
5 hours
 

 43. 

Which of the following most likely results in the formation of a fossil?
a.
A Mesozoic clam lies exposed on the
surface of the sea floor.
c.
A Mesozoic clam is eaten by a large
predatory fish.
b.
A Mesozoic clam is washed up onto the
beach.
d.
A Mesozoic clam is buried by a
mudslide.
 

 44. 


mc044-1.jpg
The chart above shows different sources of energy. Which conclusion can be made based on this chart?
a.
Coal is the main source of energy.
c.
Fossil fuels make up over three-quarters
of our energy consumption.
b.
Use of nuclear power is increasing.
d.
Renewable energy sources are
predominantly used.
 

 45. 

What is the greatest environmental cost of hydroelectric power?
a.
Increased flooding downstream
c.
Decreased species diversity in the new
lake
b.
Fish kills due to the turbines
d.
Destruction of free-running rivers and
their ecosystems
 

 46. 

Which of these mineral properties cannot be used to identify a mineral?
a.
Luster
c.
Mass
b.
Hardness
d.
Streak
 

 47. 

The pictures show different stages in the development of a river valley. Which picture shows the first stage of development?
a.
mc047-1.jpg
c.
mc047-3.jpg
b.
mc047-2.jpg
d.
mc047-4.jpg
 

 48. 


mc048-1.jpg
According to the above map, the largest river basin in Virginia is drained by the —
a.
Potomac-Shenandoah Rivers
c.
James River
b.
York River
d.
Roanoke River
 

 49. 

Ozone molecules protect Earth from the harmful effects of the sun by —
a.
insulating the temperature at the poles
c.
regulating the heat from the sun
b.
condensing water particles in clouds
d.
absorbing ultraviolet radiation
 

 50. 

Which image below best represents our galaxy?
a.
mc050-1.jpg
c.
mc050-3.jpg
b.
mc050-2.jpg
d.
mc050-4.jpg
 



 
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