Name: 
 

2004 Earth Science



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Because of the unique position of the
Earth in the solar system, life has
flourished due to the presence of —

a.
helium
c.
liquid water
b.
volcanoes
d.
salt
 

 2. 


mc002-1.jpg
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 3. 

What element is the main component
of most stars?

a.
Nitrogen
c.
Hydrogen
b.
Iron
d.
Oxygen
 

 4. 

The hypothesis for the cause of the
dinosaurs’ extinction that has the most
scientific support links their extinction
to —

a.
a long drought
c.
the increase in numbers of mammals
b.
the appearance of man
d.
a large object from space hitting the
Earth
 

 5. 

Approximately 99.7% of all water on
Earth is found in oceans, seas, ice, and
the atmosphere. Based on this
information, which statement is most
accurate?

a.
The Earth’s freshwater supply is
infinite.
c.
Humans are not dependent on ocean
water.
b.
Less than 0.3% of Earth’s water is
drinkable.
d.
The water cycle returns all usable water
to the sea.
 

 6. 


mc006-1.jpg
a.
mc006-2.jpg
c.
mc006-4.jpg
b.
mc006-3.jpg
d.
mc006-5.jpg
 

 7. 


mc007-1.jpg
a.
Northeast
c.
Southeast
b.
Northwest
d.
Southwest
 

 8. 

During which portion of the Earth’s
revolution around the sun is the
Northern Hemisphere tilted toward the
sun?

a.
Vernal equinox
c.
Autumnal equinox
b.
Summer solstice
d.
Winter solstice
 

 9. 

What is the best evidence that many
different geologic periods are
represented in Virginia?

a.
The length of its rivers
c.
The presence of fossils of different
ages
b.
The location of the Piedmont
d.
The amount of chemical weathering
 

 10. 

Volcanic ash has occasionally formed
molds of animals. This occurs when the
ash covers the animal and —

a.
replaces the animal’s soft tissues
c.
hardens before the animal decays
b.
enters the animal’s body cavity
d.
mineralizes the animal’s bones
 

 11. 


mc011-1.jpg
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 12. 

Rock layers tell a story about their
past. What is the basic assumption that
is made when reading this story?

a.
The composition of the Earth’s
atmosphere has been constant.
c.
The processes in the rock cycle were the
same in the past as they are today.
b.
The Earth’s crust cooled and then
remelted before rock layers began to
form.
d.
Chemical reactions in the past were
slower than they are today.
 

 13. 

A rain forest is found at the base of Mt.
Kilimanjaro, and the summit is
snowcapped. Which of the following
would best account for this?

a.
Temperature differences due to elevation
changes
c.
Differences in precipitation due to
formation of a rain shadow
b.
Climate differences due to seasonal
changes
d.
Climate changes due to changes in
latitude
 

 14. 

Which of the following was primarily
responsible for the development of life
outside of the oceans?

a.
A decrease in atmospheric hydrogen
c.
An increase in atmospheric nitrogen
b.
A decrease in atmospheric carbon
dioxide
d.
An increase in atmospheric oxygen
 

 15. 


mc015-1.jpg
a.
The distance between the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres
c.
The presence of earthquakes on
different continents
b.
The reason for similar fossils in Africa
and South America
d.
The variations in depths of the Atlantic
Ocean
 

 16. 

Why do stars appear to change
position during the night?

a.
Earth rotates on its axis.
c.
The stars are moving away from each
other.
b.
Earth revolves around the sun.
d.
Stars are very far away from the solar
system.
 

 17. 


mc017-1.jpg
a.
W
c.
Y
b.
X
d.
Z
 

 18. 

Which of the following is a renewable
source of energy?

a.
Natural gas
c.
Oil
b.
Coal
d.
Falling water
 

 19. 

When the sea floor spreads apart,
volcanoes and ridges are formed
because —

a.
sediments are deposited where the floor
spreads, building ridges
c.
ocean water pushes down on the
surrounding sea floor, pushing up ridges
b.
as the plates pull apart, magma moves
to the surface, building ridges
d.
underwater earthquakes lift the sea
floor into long ridges
 

 20. 

Which of these would most likely occur
as the ice caps melt?

a.
The Earth would become cooler.
c.
The rivers would flow more rapidly.
b.
The sea would cover more land.
d.
The rain would be more acidic
 

 21. 


mc021-1.jpg
a.
scratch both calcite and quartz
c.
scratch calcite and be scratched by
quartz
b.
be scratched by both calcite and quartz
d.
scratch quartz and be scratched by
calcite
 

 22. 


mc022-1.jpg
a.
aluminum
c.
potassium
b.
carbon
d.
silicon
 

 23. 


mc023-1.jpg
a.
Granite
c.
Pumice
b.
Obsidian
d.
Rhyolite
 

 24. 


mc024-1.jpg
a.
Daylight-savings time
c.
A solar storm
b.
Eclipse of the moon
d.
Thunderstorm passes
 

 25. 

One method of lessening the
environmental impact of strip mining
is to —

a.
mine only nontoxic materials
c.
feed the animals displaced by the mine
b.
only mine during the evening hours
d.
require that the landscape and
vegetation of mined lands be restored
 

 26. 

By increasing the height of
smokestacks, industries in the Midwest
reduced the local concentration of air
pollutants. However, the pollution was
carried by wind to the Northeast
where it contributed significantly to —

a.
reduced rainfall
c.
mass wasting
b.
soil erosion
d.
acid rain
 

 27. 

Which of the following best explains
the rolling topography of the Valley
and Ridge province in Virginia?

a.
Folding and differential erosion
c.
Ocean currents and uplift
b.
Block faulting of marine sediments
d.
Rifting and ocean waves
 

 28. 


mc028-1.jpg
a.
2 km
c.
6 km
b.
4 km
d.
8 km
 

 29. 

The fossil fuel found in greatest
abundance in Virginia is —

a.
oil
c.
natural gas
b.
coal
d.
methane
 

 30. 

Which of the following is not
considered a result of the movement of
tectonic plates?

a.
Earthquakes
c.
Increased volcanic activity
b.
Mountain ranges
d.
Karst topography
 

 31. 

Which diagram below best represents
the most common arrangement of
zones in a water table?

a.
mc031-1.jpg
c.
mc031-3.jpg
b.
mc031-2.jpg
d.
mc031-4.jpg
 

 32. 

Students want to identify a rock in a
nearby field. Which of the following
properties would be most useful in
identifying the unknown rock?

a.
Color
c.
Mineral content
b.
Smell
d.
Specific weight
 

 33. 

What is located beneath soil layers?
a.
Bedrock
c.
Lava
b.
Humus
d.
Tundra
 

 34. 

Organic matter in soil is made from —
a.
weathered parent rock
c.
acid rain
b.
decayed plants and animals
d.
carbon dioxide
 

 35. 

During which of these phases of the
moon will the tides be highest?

a.
mc035-1.jpg
c.
mc035-3.jpg
b.
mc035-2.jpg
d.
mc035-4.jpg
 

 36. 

On clear nights in late summer and
early fall in the Shenandoah Valley,
why does ground fog form in the low
areas near the Shenandoah River?

a.
Cool, descending air meets moist air in
the low areas near the river.
c.
Warm winds bring moisture from the
hills down into the valley.
b.
Cool, moist air ascends from the river to
the hilltops.
d.
There is more air pollution in the
evenings.
 

 37. 

Why does erosion not occur on the
moon?

a.
The rock surface of the moon is too
hard.
c.
There is no wind or rain.
b.
There is no animal life.
d.
The gravitational pull of the moon is too
weak.
 

 38. 

Which planet has a fierce
hurricane-like storm that is several
times the size of Earth?

a.
Mars
c.
Saturn
b.
Venus
d.
Jupiter
 

 39. 

Which of these provides the best
evidence of the environment in which
an igneous rock was formed?

a.
Thickness
c.
Size
b.
Color
d.
Texture
 

 40. 


mc040-1.jpg
a.
Water is always cooler than land.
c.
Cool air rises more quickly than warm
air.
b.
Land temperature changes more quickly
than water temperature.
d.
The sun warms the moist ocean air
more than the dry land air.
 

 41. 


mc041-1.jpg
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 42. 


mc042-1.jpg
a.
Continental shelf
c.
Abyssal plain
b.
Continental slope
d.
Trench
 

 43. 

A group of students wants to make a
map of a small lake, showing its depth
at various points. They plan to row
their boat all around the lake and
measure the depth at different
locations. What other information
besides depth should they record at
each location in order to have enough
data for constructing the map?

a.
The temperature at the surface of the
water at each location
c.
The time of day the depth was
measured at each location
b.
The position of each depth measurement
relative to fixed points on the shore
d.
The relative humidity at each location
 

 44. 

In 1912, an astronomer at Arizona’s
Lowell Observatory noticed that the
lines in the spectra of most galaxies
shifted toward the red end of the
spectrum. Another American
astronomer, Edwin Hubble, later
interpreted this discovery as evidence
that —

a.
galaxies were once part of one huge
megagalaxy
c.
galaxies are moving away from each
other in a constantly expanding
universe
b.
an explosion will one day result from
the pressure building as the galaxies
expand
d.
the largest galaxies are slowly engulfing
their smaller neighbors
 

 45. 

Rocks formed by the cementing of
weathered materials are called —

a.
sedimentary rocks
c.
basalt
b.
extrusive igneous rocks
d.
magma
 

 46. 


mc046-1.jpg
a.
a volcano
c.
earthquakes
b.
high winds
d.
running water
 

 47. 

What process has occurred when atoms
combine to form a new element and
release energy?

a.
Fusion
c.
Hydrogenation
b.
Fission
d.
Ionization
 

 48. 

Which of these substances plays the
most important part in chemical
weathering?

a.
Wind
c.
Ice
b.
Water
d.
Frost
 

 49. 


mc049-1.jpg
a.
0.2 gram
c.
2.5 grams
b.
2.3 grams
d.
2.8 grams
 

 50. 

Extrusive rocks have small grains
because they —

a.
cool quickly
c.
contain rare minerals
b.
harden underground
d.
have a rough mixture
 



 
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