Name: 
 

2002 Biology



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Himalayan rabbits are white with black fur on their ears and the tips of their feet. If an icepack is placed on a rabbit’s back, the fur will grow in black. In this case, hair color is determined by —
a.
length of fur
c.
environmental conditions
b.
competition
d.
predation pressure
 

 2. 


mc002-1.jpg

Which animal develops in a cycle most similar to the one shown above?
a.
A bird
c.
A hydra
b.
A moth
d.
A grasshopper
 

 3. 

DNA that is derived from the DNA of two or more different species is called —
a.
recombinant DNA
c.
chloroplast DNA
b.
mitochondrial DNA
d.
plasmid
 

 4. 

In 1928, the scientist Alexander Fleming was trying to grow the bacterium Staphylococcus, and by chance, discovered that it would not grow in the presence of a mold that he named Penicillium. In 1939, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey purified penicillin, and in 1941, penicillin was first used to treat bacterial diseases. In 1945, Alexander Fleming, Ernst Chain, and Howard Florey received the Nobel Prize in medicine for the discovery and isolation of penicillin. These facts show that —
a.
Florey and Chain unfairly used
Fleming’s work and should not have
received the Nobel Prize
c.
scientific progress often requires the
efforts of many people working together
b.
chance plays no role in scientific
discoveries
d.
whenever possible, the Nobel Prize
should be given to more than one person
 

 5. 

Long ago, people thought that the smallpox virus could be carried through the air. For this reason, many people moved from crowded cities to the more open country during smallpox epidemics, carrying with them family members who had the virus but had not yet contracted the disease. When the pox erupted on these family members, other members living in the home soon contracted the disease too. Which of these was then discovered to be the means of transmission?
a.
Drinking water from local wells
c.
Being bitten by mosquitoes that carry
the virus
b.
Directly contacting a person with
smallpox
d.
Eating food that contains the virus
 

 6. 


mc006-1.jpg

The picture shows an x-ray diffraction of DNA. The x-ray diffraction of DNA led to the idea that DNA —
a.
is a double helix
c.
can copy itself
b.
contains paired bases
d.
is a very long molecule
 

 7. 

Which of the following statements describes the process of natural selection?
a.
Farmers select animals with desirable
variations for breeding.
c.
Individuals survive that have inherited
traits adapted to their environment.
b.
Populations sharing the same gene pool
interbreed and create new species.
d.
New species are formed via genetic
engineering.
 

 8. 


mc008-1.jpg

The cucumber belongs to the Cucurbitacae family and is recognized by its long, trailing vines with fuzzy, three- to five-pointed leaves and long, spiny fruit. Using the characteristics in the chart above, which plant is most closely related to the cucumber?
a.
Eggplant
c.
Pepper
b.
Pumpkin
d.
Okra
 

 9. 

Which of these does not depend on muscle contraction?
a.
Eye movement
c.
Reflexes
b.
Arm movement
d.
Pain perception
 

 10. 


mc010-1.jpg

Which of these hypotheses is best supported by observations of this animal?
a.
This animal spends much of its time
digging.
c.
This animal is herbivorous.
b.
This animal usually hunts for food at
night.
d.
This animal has poor hearing.
 

 11. 


mc011-1.jpg

In rabbits, short fur (F) is dominant to long fur (f). According to the Punnett square, what is the chance of two heterozygous short-haired rabbits having offspring with short fur?
a.
One in four
c.
Three in four
b.
Two in four
d.
Four in four
 

 12. 

If a student needs to do research on heredity for a science project, which of these sources is the most reliable resource?
a.
A weekly news magazine
c.
A national newspaper
b.
A newspaper tabloid
d.
A professional journal
 

 13. 

The island of Aldabra lies 400 kilometers off the coast of Africa and is home to the Aldabra Rail, a long-legged wetland bird. The Aldabra Rail is flightless and much different from the rails living on the mainland. This bird became a distinctly different species through —
a.
reproductive isolation
c.
convergence
b.
adaptive radiation
d.
geographic isolation
 

 14. 


mc014-1.jpg

This organism is most closely related to animals in the Phylum Arthropoda, the phylum that contains beetles, because it has —
a.
legs
c.
jointed appendages
b.
antennae
d.
an elongated body
 

 15. 

“I took a good clear piece of Cork and with a Pen-Knife sharpen’d as keen as a razor . . . cut off . . . an exceeding thin piece of it. For upon examination with my
Microscope, I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous... These pores, or cells, were not very deep, but consisted of a great many little Boxes.”

These words were written by Robert Hooke in 1665. The pores or cells that Hooke described were really —
a.
cell walls
c.
cell membranes
b.
nuclei
d.
mitochondria
 

 16. 


mc016-1.jpg

Which of these statements is best supported by these data?
a.
Wheat plants exposed to high-intensity
ultraviolet light produce fewer seeds.
c.
High-intensity ultraviolet light may be
used to control weed growth.
b.
Chloroplasts of wheat are able to filter
out low-intensity ultraviolet light.
d.
No exposure to ultraviolet light
increases pollination in wheat plants.
 

 17. 

Unknown animal: Met-Gly-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-His-His-Glu-Lys-Asp

One method of determining the classification of an animal is by comparing the amino acid sequence. Which of these animals most closely resembles the unknown animal?
a.
Horse: Met-Gly-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Arg-Arg-
Asp-His-Glu-Lys-Asp
c.
Cat: Met-Gly-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-His-His-
Arg-Cys-Thre-Asp
b.
Dog: Met-Gly-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-His-Asp-
Glu-Lys-Asp
d.
Mouse: Met-Gly-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-His-
Glu-Val-Val-Leu
 

 18. 


mc018-1.jpg

A student was studying the responses of cells to solutions of varying salt concentrations. Which solution below would cause no change in cell size?
a.
mc018-2.jpg
c.
mc018-4.jpg
b.
mc018-3.jpg
d.
mc018-5.jpg
 

 19. 

mc019-1.jpg

How is the prokaryotic bacterium in the diagram different from a eukaryotic cell?
a.
It has ribosomes to make proteins.
c.
It has no membrane-bound nucleus.
b.
It stores its genetic information in DNA.
d.
It has a cell membrane.
 

 20. 

Cells are the functional units that make up tissues. Tissues then become the functional units that make up —
a.
enzymes
c.
other cells
b.
organs
d.
DNA
 

 21. 

The concentration of glucose must be maintained within a fairly narrow range in most vertebrates. This statement is an example of —
a.
homeostasis
c.
glycolysis
b.
excretion
d.
fermentation
 

 22. 

Peroxidase is an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide in cells. It accomplishes this because of its structure. What part of the enzyme is involved in catalytic activity?
a.
Binding pocket
c.
Active site
b.
Pleated sheet
d.
Quaternary structure
 

 23. 

Which of these processes is carried out in the same way in both plants and animals?
a.
Cellular respiration
c.
Circulation of body fluids
b.
Asexual reproduction
d.
Excretion of metabolic waste
 

 24. 

What is the main cause of fish kills in rivers polluted by fertilizers?
a.
Decreased mineral sources
c.
Increased water temperatures
b.
Decreased oxygen levels
d.
Increased water levels
 

 25. 


mc025-1.jpg

The DNA fingerprints were made from blood samples taken from a puppy and four possible sires of this puppy in an effort to determine the puppy’s pedigree. According to this information, which sire was probably the father of this puppy?

Possible Sires
a.
mc025-2.jpg
c.
mc025-4.jpg
b.
mc025-3.jpg
d.
mc025-5.jpg
 

 26. 

Bacteria are tremendously successful unicellular organisms, yet all large organisms are multicellular. Unicellular organisms cannot grow very large because the —
a.
energy expenditures would be too great
c.
diffusion of nutrients into the cell’s
interior would be too slow
b.
locomotion of the organisms would be
too slow
d.
respiratory rate would be too high
 

 27. 


mc027-1.jpg

Which of these is a decomposer in a Virginia forest?
a.
A pine tree
c.
A dandelion
b.
A mushroom
d.
A caterpillar
 

 28. 

In cows, long hair is dominant to short hair. In a cow that is heterozygous for long hair, what percentage of the cells undergoing meiosis will carry the dominant allele?
a.
25%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

 29. 


mc029-1.jpg

Around hot-water vents deep in the ocean live specialized communities.
Bacteria turn hydrogen sulfide into sugars by a chemical process. The bacteria then provide food to other life forms, as shown in the diagram. Compared to food chains on land, the bacteria fill the same role as —
a.
hawks
c.
green plants
b.
rabbits
d.
mushrooms
 

 30. 

During a trip to a rain forest, a scientist discovered a new organism living near some rotting logs. The scientist observed that the organism had moist skin, no hair, and an internal skeleton and that it laid its eggs under the logs. This organism was probably a new species of —
a.
invertebrate
c.
mammal
b.
amphibian
d.
reptile
 

 31. 


mc031-1.jpg

The picture shows the trachea and surrounding tissue of a flea. Which of these best describes the shape of the flea trachea?
a.
A single, coiled tube
c.
A long, branched tube
b.
A double-helix shape
d.
A six-sided cylinder
 

 32. 


mc032-1.jpg

The data show the growth of two bean plants over several weeks using four
different fertilizers. The experimental data would be more valid if which of the following variables was included in the experiment?
a.
A fifth fertilizer was tested.
c.
The plants were grown at variable
temperatures.
b.
Only one plant was tested.
d.
A control without fertilizer was included for each plant.
 

 33. 

Many of the forests of Virginia have been cleared for farmland. Which of these would least affect the time it would take to return a farm to forest conditions?
a.
The number of viable tree seeds on the land
c.
The density of the original forest on the farm
b.
The amount of available nutrients in the soil
d.
The ability of the farmland to retain
moisture
 

 34. 

Human red blood cells that lack sufficient hemoglobin would have a low amount of what substance?
a.
Hydrogen
c.
Calcium
b.
Nitrogen
d.
Oxygen
 

 35. 


mc035-1.jpg

The picture above shows part of the pectoral girdle and limb of two flying vertebrates known as the bat and the prehistoric pterosaur. Which bone of the pterosaur corresponds to the humerus of the bat?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 36. 


mc036-1.jpg

The picture shows a model being used to explain how food is moved through
the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. What do the fingers pushing the marble along represent?
a.
The pressure of blood vessels
surrounding the GI tract
c.
The contraction of muscles in the GI
tract
b.
The production of fluids by the GI tract
d.
The electrical impulses from the nervous
system to the GI tract
 

 37. 

Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Many years ago, streptomycin easily controlled the bacterium. Now streptomycin is much less effective against the resistant M. tuberculosis. The increasing resistance of
M. tuberculosis to streptomycin is most likely due to the increased —
a.
use of streptomycin for bacterial
infections
c.
artificial production of streptomycin
b.
numbers of alternatives to streptomycin
d.
early detection of bacterial infections
 

 38. 


mc038-1.jpg

What is the purpose of the flagellum?
a.
Circulation
c.
Movement
b.
Catching prey
d.
Attachment
 

 39. 

Hypothesis: More pine seeds germinate after a forest fire.

The most valid and reliable test of this hypothesis would include an experimental group of pine seeds that was recovered from a fire area and pine seeds that were —
a.
germinated after a fire
c.
found before a fire
b.
tolerant of fire
d.
placed in a fire
 

 40. 

A student wanted to study the effect of temperature on algae levels in a local stream. Which items are most useful for gathering data and most appropriate for communicating the results of her observations?
a.
Research on the Internet and videotapes of water samples
c.
pH strips and written observations of
stream water
b.
Microscopes and written descriptions of weather patterns
d.
Test tubes, thermometers, and graphs of results
 

 41. 

Which characteristic do viruses possess in common with living cells?
a.
They contain a nucleus and organelles.
c.
They contain nucleic acids such as DNA
or RNA.
b.
They make their own food.
d.
They are inactive outside the body of
living cells.
 

 42. 

The triplet code of bases for RNA may be represented by all of the following except
a.
CGT
c.
CGG
b.
CGA
d.
CGU
 

 43. 


mc043-1.jpg

The picture shows three columns of exposed rock that are within a three-kilometer area. According to this information, the dominant past environment of this area has been —
a.
arctic tundra
c.
deciduous forest
b.
shallow marine
d.
tropical desert
 

 44. 

People who have been exposed to excessive radiation often experience mutations. If these mutations only occur in somatic (body) cells, these people may —
a.
pass on these mutations to their
offspring
c.
develop entirely new DNA sequences in all cells
b.
experience an increased risk of cancer
d.
experience difficulties replicating RNA
 

 45. 


mc045-1.jpg

Which characteristic supports the hypothesis that this bird spends a great deal of time in the trees and shrubs?
a.
The thickness of its bill
c.
The shape of its feet
b.
The crest of feathers on its head
d.
The color of its wings
 

 46. 


mc046-1.jpg

Jan consistently read the volume of liquids as shown. How would this practice impact her work?
a.
Her measurements would lack precision.
c.
Her measurements would be too low for
less dense liquids.
b.
Her measurements would be too high.
d.
Her measurements would be very
accurate.
 

 47. 


mc047-1.jpg

According to this key, to what family does the insect above belong?
a.
Dytiscidae
c.
Gyrnidae
b.
Haliplidae
d.
Noteridae
 

 48. 


mc048-1.jpg

In the graph above, what is the population of deer at the carrying capacity of the environment?
a.
10
c.
50
b.
30
d.
70
 

 49. 

Photosynthesis is important for almost all life on Earth because it —
a.
produces oxygen
c.
is responsible for most decay
b.
uses simple elements
d.
releases usable forms of nitrogen
 

 50. 

A student wants to view cells under the compound microscope at a total magnification of 400X. If the eyepiece is 10X, which of the following objective lenses should be used?
a.
4X
c.
40X
b.
10X
d.
100X
 



 
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