Name: 
 

2001 Earth Science



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 


mc001-1.jpg

The pictures show the same stars at different times. Which hypothesis is best supported by these data?
a.
The stars are moving toward one
another.
c.
One star is moving around another star.
b.
The three stars are moving very fast.
d.
The biggest star is closest to the Earth.
 

 2. 

All of the following are sources of energy derived from the ocean except
a.
coal
c.
tides
b.
thermal
d.
waves
 

 3. 

A star might be much brighter than it appears to be. This is called the star’s absolute magnitude. The difference in apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude is due primarily to the star’s —
a.
surface temperature
c.
diameter
b.
motion through the universe
d.
distance from the Earth
 

 4. 


mc004-1.jpg

These minerals may be grouped together because they all have —
a.
the same crystal systems
c.
shiny streaks
b.
constant density values
d.
the oxygen ion
 

 5. 

Water vapor is lighter than many atmospheric gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Why then doesn’t water vapor rise above these other gases to a higher level of the atmosphere?
a.
Water vapor contains other elements
that give it weight.
c.
The water molecules are attracted to
molecules of heavier gases and remain
in the lower regions of the atmosphere.
b.
The cool atmosphere condenses the
rising water vapor and causes it to fall
back to Earth.
d.
There is an attraction among the water
vapor molecules to hold them together
close to the Earth.
 

 6. 


mc006-1.jpg

Scientists use drill core samples to study the underlying rock structure. These two core samples were obtained from the ocean floor from locations separated by 10 km. Which layer in core sample one does not have a matching layer in core sample two?
a.
Basalt
c.
Limestone
b.
Clay
d.
Sandstone
 

 7. 


mc007-1.jpg

mc007-2.jpg
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 8. 


mc008-1.jpg

a.
number of people
c.
number of heavy industries
b.
amount of rainfall
d.
amount of land per person
 

 9. 

The presence of many metamorphic rocks in Virginia is an indication that the area has been subjected to —
a.
intense heat and pressure
c.
deep ocean venting
b.
limited volcanic activity
d.
massive solar bombardment
 

 10. 


mc010-1.jpg

The picture shows a limestone building block. Which observation best shows that the limestone was formed from ocean sediments?
a.
The thickness of the rock layers
c.
The type of fossils
b.
The number of fossils
d.
The size of the fossils
 

 11. 

About how long does it take the Earth to make one complete rotation on its axis?
a.
One day
c.
One month
b.
One week
d.
One year
 

 12. 


mc012-1.jpg

What appears to have occurred at the area labeled B?
a.
Sediment was deposited on sloped
ground.
c.
Sediment was deposited on level groundthat later tilted.
b.
Sediment was deposited on sloped
ground that later became level.
d.
Sediment was deposited on level ground that stayed level.
 

 13. 

Which of these energy sources produces the least harmful environmental effects?
a.
Nuclear
c.
Solar
b.
Fossil fuels
d.
Hydroelectric
 

 14. 

All of the following support the theory of continental drift except that —
a.
the continents seem to fit together like
pieces of a puzzle
c.
mountain ranges in South America and
Africa line up
b.
there are similar fossils on different
continents
d.
the North Pole and Antarctica are
covered with ice
 

 15. 


mc015-1.jpg

One step in determining the metal content of a ring is to find the volume of the ring. What is the volume of this ring?
a.
1.7 mL
c.
4.7 mL
b.
3.0 mL
d.
7.1 mL
 

 16. 

The Southern Hemisphere is warmer in January than in July because —
a.
it is experiencing summer
c.
the sun puts out more energy
b.
the cold winds are concentrated in the
Northern Hemisphere
d.
the hole in the ozone layer allows more
heat into the atmosphere
 

 17. 


mc017-1.jpg

Which answer below matches the number in the drawing with the correct name of a sedimentary formation?
a.
1-continental shelf, 2-continental rise,
3-barrier island
c.
1-barrier island, 2-continental shelf,
3-alluvial fan
b.
1-alluvial fan, 2-flood plain, 3-delta
d.
1-continental shelf, 2-continental rise,
3-barrier island
 

 18. 

Only 3% of the Earth’s water is fresh water. The world’s oceans contain the rest of the Earth’s water. Of that 3%, three-fourths is tied up in glaciers, ice caps, and snow fields. Antarctic glaciers contain nearly 85% of all the ice in the world, and floating sea ice in the Arctic contains 10% of the ice. Sea ice freezes from ocean water, but the salt is excluded in the freezing process, resulting in mostly freshwater ice. Where is the remaining 5% of the world’s permanent supply of ice and snow?
a.
High mountain peaks
c.
Floating icebergs
b.
Permanent Arctic blizzards
d.
Drifting Antarctic snow
 

 19. 

Oil spills have a tremendous impact on the ocean environment, and the oil must be cleaned up after these spills. A new technique for cleaning oil from beaches is called bioremediation. This technique uses naturally occurring bacteria to break down the oil. How is this accomplished?
a.
The bacteria bind with the oil and bring
it to land.
c.
The bacteria chemically change the oil
into less harmful substances.
b.
The bacteria pull the oil down to the
ocean floor.
d.
The bacteria die and absorb the oil.
 

 20. 

A student sees a very bright star in the sky and thinks it might be the planet Venus. Which observation would lend support to this conclusion?
a.
After a few minutes, its position relative to the surrounding stars has changed significantly.
c.
After an hour, its brightness has faded
significantly.
b.
After an hour, its position relative to the horizon has changed.
d.
After a month, its position relative to
the surrounding stars has changed.
 

 21. 


mc021-1.jpg

Which of the following major earthquakes did not occur at a boundary between tectonic plates?
a.
South Carolina (U.S.A.) 1886
c.
Messina (southern Italy) 1908
b.
San Francisco (U.S.A.) 1906
d.
Chillan (Chile) 1939
 

 22. 

Sinkholes associated with natural processes are characteristic of what type of bedrock?
a.
Limestone
c.
Basalt
b.
Granite
d.
Gneiss
 

 23. 

Which diagram represents the placement of the sun, Earth, and moon during a lunar eclipse?
a.
mc023-1.jpg
c.
mc023-3.jpg
b.
mc023-2.jpg
d.
mc023-4.jpg
 

 24. 


mc024-1.jpg

According to the map, most hurricanes occur where —
a.
the oceans are warmest
c.
the atmosphere is driest
b.
the landmasses are largest
d.
areas of greatest population exist
 

 25. 

Geologists think that parts of the Appalachian Mountains formed originally from sediments accumulating in shallow swamps. The weight of the sediments caused the area beneath them to sink, allowing more sediments to accumulate. The process continued until many layers had formed. Then tectonic processes folded the layered sediments into a range of mountains. What evidence for this theory can be found in the current structure of these mountains?
a.
Some rocks making up these mountains show signs of volcanism.
c.
The mountains exhibit folded layers of
rocks containing fossils from shallow
water.
b.
The form of these mountains is very
eroded.
d.
The mountain range consists of parallel ridges of different ages.
 

 26. 


mc026-1.jpg

In this Mercator map of North America, Canada and Alaska together appear larger than the United States and Mexico together when in fact they are smaller. What causes this distortion?
a.
Mountains get flattened on a map so
that mountainous areas look larger thanthey really are.
c.
The latitude and longitude lines create
an optical illusion.
b.
The northern regions are enlarged
because the shallower parts of the
oceans are frozen.
d.
The map is a projection of a round worldonto a flat surface.
 

 27. 

The pole star, Polaris, is nearly stationary and straight overhead when seen from the North Pole. When viewed from the Equator, it —
a.
is nearly stationary and on the horizon
c.
rises barely above the eastern horizon,
moves along the southern horizon, and
sets in the West
b.
is nearly stationary and directly
overhead
d.
rises straight up in the East, passes
directly overhead, and descends straight down in the West
 

 28. 


mc028-1.jpg

Using this procedure, what property of a mineral can be found?
a.
Crystal arrangement
c.
Brittleness
b.
Specific gravity
d.
Fracture
 

 29. 

Moist air from the Pacific Ocean rises and cools as it passes from west to east over the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Once it is over the mountain range, the= air descends and warms on the other side. What is the result of the air ascending, then descending over the mountains?
a.
Desert on the west side of the mountains and heavy rains on the east
side
c.
Heavy rains on the west side of the
mountains and year-round snow on the
east side
b.
Heavy rains on the west side of the
mountains and desert on the east side
d.
Desert on the east and west sides of the mountains and heavy rains on top of the mountains
 

 30. 

Because granite cools below the surface of the Earth, it is —
a.
an igneous extrusive rock
c.
a sedimentary rock
b.
an igneous intrusive rock
d.
a metamorphic rock
 

 31. 


mc031-1.jpg

According to the data shown by the graph, the warmest air during the summer will be found —
a.
closest to North Lake
c.
above the land between the lakes
b.
above South Lake
d.
closest to the water level of the lakes
 

 32. 

Fish are abundant in areas where the ocean is upwelling because it —
a.
causes currents that carry fish into the
area
c.
causes surface turbulence that attracts
fish
b.
brings nutrients to the surface
d.
changes tidal flow in that area
 

 33. 

Parallax can be used to measure a star’s —
a.
distance from Earth
c.
gravitational strength
b.
atmospheric temperature
d.
surface composition
 

 34. 

Which of the following is an example of chemical weathering?
a.
Splits in a rock due to tree roots
c.
A rock broken into chunks after
being carried by rapidly flowing water
b.
Pulverized rock resulting from a
landslide
d.
The dissolving of limestone by acid
rain
 

 35. 

Many quarries in Virginia produce crushed stone. What industry uses the most crushed stone?
a.
Plastics
c.
Electronics
b.
Construction
d.
Steel
 

 36. 

All of the following are characteristics of metamorphic rocks except
a.
flattened crystals
c.
bending from pressure
b.
colored, parallel layers
d.
holes from trapped gases
 

 37. 

Which of these best shows wind-deposited sediments?
a.
mc037-1.jpg
c.
mc037-3.jpg
b.
mc037-2.jpg
d.
mc037-4.jpg
 

 38. 


mc038-1.jpg

What is the position of the star above the horizon?
a.
mc038-2.jpg
c.
mc038-4.jpg
b.
mc038-3.jpg
d.
mc038-5.jpg
 

 39. 

Not all fossils have been preserved inside soil or rock. Explorers in Siberia have discovered the bodies of ancient mammoths so well-preserved that the flesh could be eaten. What do you think preserved the mammoths in such a perfect state?
a.
Water
c.
Leaf mold
b.
Ice
d.
Carbon dioxide
 

 40. 


mc040-1.jpg

Which layer in this area is the youngest?
a.
Shale
c.
Limestone
b.
Sandstone
d.
Breccia
 

 41. 

What is the fewest number of seismographic stations that must record the arrival time of P and S waves in order for the epicenter of an earthquake to be located?
a.
2
c.
5
b.
3
d.
10
 

 42. 


mc042-1.jpg

This picture shows a simple well that was dug down to the groundwater. What probably caused the lower level of groundwater, known as a “cone of depression,” in the vicinity of the well?
a.
The weight of the atmosphere presses
down on the groundwater in the well.
c.
Gravity pulls down the water beneath
the well.
b.
The ground below the well acts as a
vacuum sucking out the water.
d.
As water is drawn from the well, it
takes time for the groundwater to
percolate through the soil and restore
the level.
 

 43. 


mc043-1.jpg

What is the actual distance represented by 1 inch on this map?
a.
24 feet
c.
24,000 inches
b.
40 feet
d.
48,000 inches
 

 44. 

The amount of power that can be generated by a hydroelectric dam would be most dependent on which two factors?
a.
The width of the dam and the
construction material of the dam
c.
The surface area of the reservoir and
the shape of the reservoir floor
b.
The volume of water going over the dam and the distance that the water falls
d.
The temperature of the water and the
amount of oxygen that it contains
 

 45. 


mc045-1.jpg

The diagram shows the distribution of different fossils. During what geologic time period would they have existed together?
a.
Jurassic
c.
Permian
b.
Triassic
d.
Carboniferous
 

 46. 

A person weighs more on the Earth than on the moon because the Earth has a greater —
a.
density
c.
magnetic strength
b.
atmospheric pressure
d.
gravitational pull
 

 47. 


mc047-1.jpg

Which of these elements does this star contain?
a.
Mercury
c.
Sodium
b.
Calcium
d.
Neon
 

 48. 


mc048-1.jpg

Which factor would best explain why Charlottesville is clear while Norfolk has mist?
a.
Temperature
c.
Wind speed
b.
Humidity
d.
Pressure
 

 49. 

The mineral resources of Virginia can be conserved by doing all of the following except
a.
recycling
c.
regenerating
b.
reducing
d.
reusing
 

 50. 

A boat will float higher in the Atlantic Ocean than it will in the Potomac River because ocean water has —
a.
a lower freezing point
c.
more oxygen in it
b.
more organisms in it
d.
a greater density
 



 
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