Running Records: A running record is a record of reading behaviors that students make as they are reading. As a child reads a portion of a text, the teacher notes errors, self-corrections, repetitions, re-readings, hesitations, and appeals for help. The primary focus is on what the child can do when reading.  Next, a running record identifies what areas the child would benefit from instruction with in order to grow as a reader. The running record allows the teacher to note and record the reading progress of a child over time. Additionally, the running record also allows the teacher to determine if a book considered for instruction or for independent reading is at an appropriate level.
    PALS : The Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening (PALS) is the state-provided screening tool for Virginia’s Early Intervention Reading Initiative.  PALS consists of two screening instruments, PALS K (for students in kindergarten) and PALS 1-3 (for students in grades one through three), which measure young children’s knowledge of letter sounds, spelling, concept of word, word recognition in isolation, and oral passage reading.  The major purpose of PALS is to identify those students who are below grade-level expectations in these areas and may be in need of additional reading instruction.   PALS testing dates, data entry dates, benchmarks scores, and grade levels to be tested are established by the state annually. PALS is administered three times a year; at the beginning of the school year, mid-year for students who did not meet the fall benchmark, and at the end of the school year.  

    DRA : The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) is an individualized reading assessment administered to students in grades one - five. The main purposes of the DRA is to enable teachers to systematically observe, record, and evaluate change in student reading performance.  In addition, teachers use the data to guide instruction. The DRA assesses students' reading achievement in engagement, oral reading, fluency, and comprehension skills and strategies.  Benchmark levels have been established for the fall, mid-year and spring.