• Below are some great websites to help you review for the SOL:

    http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9 – crash courses for World 1 (#1-20) and World 2 (#20-40)


    Name: ______________________________                                   

    Broad Run High School Social Science Department

    WH/GEO I – SOL Review Packet       
    These questions cover the essential knowledge that is on the SOL


    1. What defines absolute location?



    2. What identifies map orientation?



    3. What determines how a measurement on a map corresponds to a measurement on the earth?



    4. What is a map?



    5. All maps are what kind of representations of the Earth’s surface?



    6. Which maps can be used for ship navigation? Airline navigation? Data representation?



    7. More than anything else, what shaped the lives of early hunter-gatherer societies?



    8. Homo Sapiens first emerged on what continent?  How many years ago?



    9. Early hunter-gatherers depended on wild plants and animal life and were sometimes forced to migrate to new locations for food.  This made them what type of people?



    10. What were the key characteristics of societies of the Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age)?



    11. What was the major step taken by man toward the advancement of civilization?



    12. What were the major characteristics of the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age)?



    13. Which social scientists find and interpret evidence of early humans and their lives by locating and analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts?



    14. What is carbon dating?


    15. What site in England was begun in the Neolithic Age but finished in the Bronze Age?



    16. In what region of the world did the first permanent settlements appear?



    17. Why were river valleys important to the development civilization?



    18. What civilization emerged in the Nile River Valley and Delta?



    19. The valleys of what two rivers served as the home to Mesopotamian civilization?



    20. Indian civilization first emerged in what river valley?



    21. Chinese civilization first emerged in what river valley?



    22. Where did the Hebrews settle (originally)?



    23. Where did the Phoenicians settle?



    24. Where was the Kingdom of Kush located?



    25. Many of the ancient river valley civilizations developed a ruling system where power was passed down through family members. In those cases, what had been established?



    26. What is a city-state?



    27. What was the first written law code? (it was created by a Babylonian ruler)



    28. Most of the ancient river valley civilizations used weapons made from what metal?



    29. What was the first civilization to make and use weapons made from iron?



    30. What advancements in technology allowed for increased agricultural surpluses?



    31. What civilization became famous for trading practices on waterways? What did they trade?



    32. Because of agricultural surpluses, certain people were able to engage in tasks and jobs other than farming.  What was this development called?



    33. Most early civilizations practiced what form of religious worship?  How is that defined?



    34. Which group of people were the first to practice monotheism?



    35. Who is Abraham and why is he important?



    36. Who was Moses and why is he important?



    37. What city became the religious home and political center for Jews?



    38. Identify the major beliefs, traditions, and customs of Judaism.



    39. What is the holy book of Judaism that contains written records and beliefs?



    40. What states the moral and religious conduct expected of Jews?



    41. What happened as a result of the Jewish Exile?



    42. What was the Diaspora?



    43. What is the name of the earliest written symbols, where pictures would represent ideas?



    44. What was the form of writing in Egyptian civilization?



    45. What was the form of writing in Sumer?



    46. What was the form of language and writing used by the Phoenicians?



    47. What empire, built on earlier Central Asian and Mesopotamian civilizations, became the largest in the world?



    48. What were the key characteristics of the Persian rule and government?



    49. What was the official religion of Persia? What were its key beliefs?



    50. Why is India considered a subcontinent?



    51. Civilization eventually spread to what other key river valley?



    52. What physical and geographical barriers made invasion of India very difficult?



    53. What group of people were eventually able to invade India?  How did they get there?



    54. The Indo-Aryans created, in India, a rigidly structured social system known as what?



    55. This system was hereditary and influenced what two things during one’s life?



    56. Mathematics, new textiles, and literature were all contributions of the Golden Age of Indian culture, which took place during the rule of which Dynasty?



    57. What religion evolved in India and is still practiced there today?



    58. What are the key characteristics and beliefs of Hinduism?



    59. What is reincarnation?


    60. Explain the concept of Karma?



    61. What are the sacred writings of Hinduism?



    62. Who founded Buddhism?  Where was it founded?



    63. What ruler sent Buddhist missionaries throughout Asia?  What region was affected the most?



    64. What are the key characteristics and beliefs of Buddhism?



    65. What are the Four Noble Truths?



    66. What is the Eightfold Path? Identify the eight steps.



    67. Classical China was centered around what river?  What is its other name?



    68. How is China geographically isolated?



    69. Explain the key characteristics and beliefs of Confucianism.



    70. Explain the key characteristics and beliefs of Taoism (Daoism).



    71. What is the Great Wall?  Why was it built?  Who was responsible for its construction?



    72. China was governed by a succession of ruling families called what?



    73. What idea was used by Chinese rulers to justify their rule?  It lasted only as long as what?



    74. What facilitated trade and contact between China and other cultures as far away as Rome?



    75. What are the four major contributions of classical China to world civilization?

    76. What symbol is used to represent opposites in both Confucianism and Taoism?



    77. What body of water lies to the East of Greece and was important for trade?  What larger body of water was it a part of?



    78. What geographical term is used to describe the location of Greece?



    79. What region or nation existed to the North of Greece?



    80. Why did Greece lack enough agricultural output?



    81. How did the mountainous terrain on the Greek peninsula affect its growth and unity?



    82. The Greeks resorted to what in order to deal with overpopulation and lack of arable land?



    83. What was the name applied to the Greek’s polytheistic religious beliefs?



    84. What three things did Greek mythology explain?



    85. The following deities were gods of what? (Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Aphrodite)



    86. Which city-state developed the most democratic system of government in history?



    87. What people were considered citizens in Ancient Greece?



    88. Which groups of people had no political rights in Ancient Greece?



    89. Athens evolved through what four forms of government (in order)?



    90. Who was Draco and why was he important?



    91. Who was Solon and why was he important?



    92. Sparta had what form of government?  Which means what?



    93. What were the major qualities and values of Spartan society?



    94. What wars were fought by the Greeks from 499-449BC that united Athens and Sparta?



    95. What was the Battle of Marathon and why was it important?



    96. What was the Battle of Salamis and why is it important?



    97. What war lasted from 431-404BC and pitted Sparta against Athens?



    98. Athens led what military alliance?



    99. Sparta led what military alliance?  Who won the conflict?



    100. What individual led Athens during its Golden Age? What were his major achievements?



    101. What is the Parthenon?



    102. Who were three famous Greek dramatists and what did they write?



    103. What poet spoke of the Trojan Wars?  What are his epic poems called?



    104. Who were the two people who advanced the study of history?



    105. Which Greek artist was famous for his sculpture of Athena at the Parthenon?



    106. What were the three types of Greek columns and what were their major characteristics?

    107. Who was Archimedes and why was he important?



    108. Who was Hippocrates and why was he important?



    109. Who was Euclid and why was he important?



    110. Who was Pythagoras and why was he important?\



    111. Who were the three major philosophers and what were their major contributions?



    112. What individual was responsible for conquering Greece?  Where was from?



    113. Who adopted Greek culture and spread Hellenistic influences throughout this vast empire?



    114. How far did the empire of Alexander the Great stretch?



    115. What was the Hellenistic Age and why was it important?



    116. What geographical features protected Rome and the Italian peninsula?



    117. What was Roman Mythology based on?  What did it explain?



    118. Who were the major gods and goddesses in Roman mythology and what were they gods of?



    119. What was the early form of government in Rome (after the Etruscan kings were deposed)?



    120. Who were the Patricians?



    121. Who were the Plebeians?



    122. Patricians and Plebeians (plus some foreigners) were given citizenship in return for what?

    123. What were the three major governing bodies during the existence of the Roman Republic?  What did they do, or what were they responsible for?



    124. Roman law was codifed and called what?



    125. What city in North Africa came into conflict with Rome over control of trade?  What were the series of wars known as?



    126. Who was Hannibal and why was he important?



    127. Who won the Punic Wars and what happened to Carthage as a result? to Rome?



    128. What four things caused the decline of the Roman Republic?



    129. Who was Julius Caesar and why was he important?



    130. Who was Augustus Caesar and why was he important?



    131. What was the Pax Romana?



    132. What was the economic impact of the Pax Romana?



    133. What was the social impact of the Pax Romana?



    134. What was the political impact of the Pax Romana?



    135. Who began the teachings that eventually evolved into Christianity?



    136. How did Christians come to view Jesus?



    137. How did Christian beliefs conflict with Roman Mythology?


    138. What are the characteristics, beliefs, and traditions of Christianity?



    139. What is the New Testament and why is it important?



    140. Who were the Apostles, and why is Paul important?



    141. Who adopted and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire?



    142. What became the main unifying force in Western Europe?



    143. Describe the architectural achievements of the Pantheon, Colosseum, and the Forum.



    144. Why were Roman roads and aqueducts important?



    145. Who was Ptolemy and why was he important?



    146. How did advancements in Roman medicine demonstrate an emphasis on public health?



    147. What was the official language of the Roman Empire?  It eventually transformed into what?



    148. Who is Virgil and why was he important?



    149. What major principle was passed down to us from Roman law?



    150. What five factors caused the decline of the Roman Empire?



    151. Who moved the capital of the Empire from Rome to Byzantium?  What did he rename the city?



    152. The Western half of the Roman Empire finally collapsed in what year?



    153. The Eastern half of the Roman Empire continued to prosper by what name?



    154. What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?



    155. Why was Constantinople’s location important to the Byzantine Empire?



    156. Who codified old Roman law for use by the Byzantine Empire?  What was its name?



    157. What were three important achievements of Emperor Justinian?



    158. What is the name of religious images used by Greek Orthodox Christians in worship?



    159. What was the name of the Byzantine domed church in Constantinople?  What type of elaborate artwork did it feature inside?



    160. How did Greek and Roman culture survive in the Byzantine Empire?



    161. What were the key characteristics of the Eastern Christian Church (Greek Orthodoxy)?



    162. What were the key characteristics of the Western Christian Church (Roman Catholicism)?



    163. Why was there a division between the Eastern and Western branches of Christianity?



    164. What led to interaction between Byzantines and the Slavs in Russia?



    165. The Slavic oral languages were adapted to the Greek alphabet by who?  What was it called?



    166. Russians and other Eastern European people adopted what form of Christianity?



    167. Who founded Islam?



    168. In what geographic region was Islam founded?  What two key religious cities are there?



    169. The Muslim empire spread through parts of what three continents?



    170. What are the key characteristics, beliefs, and traditions of Islam?



    171. Identify each of the Five Pillars of Islam.



    172. What is the holy book of Islam?



    173. How are Jesus, Moses, and Abraham viewed in Islam?



    174. What factors allowed for the significant expansion of Islamic beliefs and Muslim rule?



    175. What spread along with Islamic beliefs and Muslim rule?



    176. Islam is divided into what two branches?  Which is more common today?



    177. Aside from Mecca and Medina, what other cities became important to the Muslim Empire?



    178. What happened at the Battle of Tours and why was it important?



    179. What famous Muslim architectural achievement is in Jerusalem?  What happened there?



    180. Why were universities important to the Muslim Empire?  What did they preserve?



    181. What Mathematical achievements are attributed to the Muslim Empire?



    182. What became the unifying force in Western Europe during the Middle Ages?  Led by who?



    183. Early Medieval society was founded on what three influences?

    184. How did the Roman Catholic Church exercise influence during the Middle Ages? (4 ways)



    185. When Western Europeans were left with little protection from invaders, they entered in to what for protection?  With who?



    186. Describe feudal society during the Middle Ages. How did it work?



    187. What was a medieval manor and how did it work?



    188. What group of people did the Church establish an alliance with in order to expand their power and influence?



    189. Who was anointed as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800 AD?



    190. What four groups’ invasions disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe?



    191. Each of those invading groups moved from where to where?



    192. What were the major trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere from 1000-1500AD?



    193. What trade goods facilitated connections between various cultures?



    194. What technological advances allowed for an expansion of trade?



    195. Buddhism spread from where to where during the Middle Ages? Hinduism? Islam?



    196. What influences did geography have on the development of Japan?



    197. How did proximity to China influence Japanese culture?



    198. What two religious traditions coexisted in Japan?


    199. What are the key beliefs and traditions of Shinto?



    200. What were the key characteristics of Axum (East Africa)?



    201. What were the important characteristics of Zimbabwe (Southern Africa)?



    202. What were the characteristics of the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?



    203. What were the characteristics of Mayan civilization (Central America)?



    204. What were the characteristics of Aztec civilization (present-day Mexico)?



    205. What were the key characteristics of Incan Civilization (South America)?



    206. What were formed by European monarchies and they consolidated power?



    207. Who led the Norman Conquest and united most of England?



    208. English common law had its beginnings during the reign of who?



    209. King John limited his power and the power of future kings when he signed what? When?



    210. What conflict with France united England as a nation?



    211. Who was Hugh Capet and why was he important?



    212. Who was Joan of Arc and why was he important?



    213. Who were Ferdinand and Isabella and why were they important?



    214. Who was Philip II and why was he important?

    215. Who was Ivan the Great and why was he important?



    216. Power in Russia was centralized in the hands of what leader?



    217. What were the Crusades and why were they carried out?



    218. What were the five key events of the Crusades?



    219. What were the four major effects of the Crusades?



    220. Who were the Mongols, and to where did they extend their empire?



    221. What group invaded and conquered the Byzantine Empire?



    222. What decimated the population of much of Asia and then Europe during the 14th Century?



    223. What was the impact of the Black Death on economic and social institutions? (five)



    224. Education was largely confined to what group during the Middle Ages?  Therefore they were largely responsible for preserving what?



    225. How did Church scholars interpret and value ancient learning? (five)



    226. What were the three economic effects of the Crusades?



    227. What were the three economic concepts of the Renaissance?



    228. What were the three benefits to the geographic location of the Northern Italian city-states of Florence, Venice, and Genoa?



    229. Who is Machiavelli and why was he important?


    230. What are the major ideas concerning power expressed in The Prince?



    231. What was the name given to people who sponsored works that glorified city-states in Northern Italy?



    232. Medieval art and literature focused on what?



    233. Renaissance art and literature focused on what?



    234. Who was Leonardo da Vinci, and for what was he famous?



    235. Who was Michelangelo and for what was he famous?



    236. Who was Petrarch and for what was he famous?



    237. What is humanism, and why was it important to the Renaissance?



    238. What three factors explain how the values and ideas of the Italian Renaissance spread to Northern Europe?



    239. What did Northern Renaissance thinkers merge with humanist ideas?



    240. What invention and events helped disseminate ideas?



    241. Who was Erasmus and why was he important?



    242. Who was Sir Thomas More and why was he important?

Last Modified on January 23, 2015