The Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening (PALS) is the state-provided screening tool for Virginia’s Early Intervention Reading Initiative. PALS consists of two screening instruments, PALS K (for students in kindergarten) and PALS 1-3 (for students in grades one through three), which measure young children’s knowledge of letter sounds, spelling, concept of word, word recognition in isolation, and oral passage reading. The major purpose of PALS is to identify those students who are below grade-level expectations in these areas and may be in need of additional reading instruction. PALS testing dates, data entry dates, benchmark scores, and grade levels to be tested are established by the state annually. PALS is administered three times a year; at the beginning of the school year, mid-year for students who did not meet the fall benchmark and at the end of the school year. The state provides a limited amount of funding for remediation.