Students in grade nine complete the transition from modified versions of movement forms to more complex applications across all types of physical activities. This may include outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, and games and sports (net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target). Students demonstrate the ability to use basic skills, strategies, and tactics in a variety of lifetime physical activities. Students demonstrate more specialized knowledge in identifying and applying key movement concepts and principles. Students will explain the importance of energy balance and nutritional needs of the body to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease. They self-assess their skill performance and develop a personal physical activity program aimed at improving motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies essential to performing a variety of physical activities. They apply their understanding of personal fitness to lifelong participation in physical activity. Students demonstrate independence in making choices, respecting others, avoiding conflict, resolving conflicts appropriately, and using elements of fair play and ethical behavior in physical activity settings. Students demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to plan for and improve components of fitness and achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of personal fitness.
Motor Skill Development
9.1 The student will perform all basic movement skills and demonstrate movement and biomechanical principles in a variety of activities that may include outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, and games and sports (net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target(s)).
a) Demonstrate proficiency and refinement in locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills through appropriate activities (e.g., outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, games and sports [net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target]).
b) Design, implement, evaluate, and modify a practice plan for a self-selected skill, to include the motor learning process of analysis of performance; application of principles of movement and training; goal setting; and improvement of personal skills through practice, correction, practicing at a higher level, and reassessment.
c) Apply the concepts and principles of levers, force, motion, and rotation in a variety of activities.
d) Apply physiological principles of warm-up, cool down, overload, specificity, and progression.
e) Apply biomechanical principles of balance, energy, and types of muscle contractions to a variety of activities.
f) Demonstrate competency in one or more specialized skills in health-related fitness activities.
Anatomical Basis of Movement
9.2 The student will explain the structures and functions of the body and how they relate to and are affected by human movement.
a) Explain and apply selected scientific principles, to include physiological (warm-up, cool down, overload, specificity, and progression) and biomechanical (levers, types of muscle contractions, and force) that aid in the improvement of movement skills.
b) Analyze and evaluate proficient and efficient movement in relation to how movement is directed, to include the type of muscle action that directs a movement (concentric, eccentric, and isometric), the direction the body part moves relative to its joints (abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension), and planes of movement.
c) Apply the concepts and principles of the body’s metabolic response to short- and long-term physical activity.
d) Explain the body’s response to the principles of specificity, overload, and progression (SOP) in relation to frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise (FITT).
e) Explain the anaerobic respiration (ATP-PC and Lactic Acid System) and aerobic respiration systems used for energy during activity.
f) Analyze movement performance, and utilize feedback to learn or to improve the movement skills of self and others.
9.3 The student will evaluate current fitness behaviors and demonstrate achievement and maintenance of a health-enhancing level of personal fitness by designing, implementing, self-assessing, and modifying a personal fitness program.
a) Demonstrate program-planning skills by assessing and analyzing personal fitness levels, setting goals, devising strategies, making timelines for a personal physical fitness plan, and evaluating the components and progress of the personal fitness plan.
b) Apply the FITT (frequency, intensity, time, type) principle and other principles of training such as overload, specificity, and progression, in accordance with personal goals to the personal fitness plan.
c) Explain the characteristics, including scientific principles and concepts, of safe and appropriate muscular-stretching, muscular-strengthening, and cardiorespiratory exercise programs to improve the health-related components of fitness.
d) Explain the relationship between heart rate, training zones, and exercise intensity, to include measures (e.g., heart rate monitors, pedometers, accelerometers) and appropriate training zones to meet exercise and personal fitness goals.
e) Demonstrate appropriate techniques for resistance-training activities, machines, and/or free weights.
f) Calculate resting heart rate, target heart rate, and blood pressure.
g) Identify types of strength exercises (isometric, concentric, eccentric) and stretching exercises (static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, dynamic) for personal fitness development (e.g., strength, endurance, range of motion).
h) Define and describe terms and activities associated with fitness, to include set, repetition, isometric, isotonic, isokinetic, core, upper body, and lower body exercises.
9.4 The student will explain and demonstrate the skills needed to be safe, responsible, and respectful in all physical activity settings.
a) Identify and demonstrate proper etiquette, respect for others, integrity, and teamwork while engaging in a variety of activities.
b) Explain the impact of sports and activities in developing respect for the unique characteristics, differences and abilities of peers.
c) Apply conflict-resolution skills in physical activity settings.
d) Identify an opportunity for social support in a self-selected physical activity.
e) Apply communication skills and strategies that promote positive team/group dynamics.
f) Apply problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in physical activity settings, both as an individual and in groups.
g) Apply best practices for participating safely in physical activity, exercise, and dance (e.g., injury prevention, proper alignment, hydration, use of equipment, implementation of rules, sun protection).
h) Analyze and compare psychological benefits derived from various physical activities (e.g., decreased stress and anxiety, increased self-esteem, increased mental alertness, improved mood).
9.5 The student will explain the importance of energy balance and evaluate current caloric intake and caloric expenditure to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease.
a) Explain the body’s physiological response to sugar, sodium, and fat.
b) Assess and analyze current energy balance, to include intake and expenditure, activity levels, food choices, and amount of sleep.
c) Explain body composition, using body mass index (BMI) and other measures, the variety of body types, and healthy body weight.
d) Design and implement a plan to maintain an appropriate energy balance for a healthy, active lifestyle, to include intake, expenditure (levels of intensity), and sleep.
Students in grade 10 are proficient in fundamental movement skills and skill combinations and are competent in self-selected physical activities that they are likely to pursue throughout life including outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, selected individual performance activities, and net/wall and target games. They understand and apply concepts and principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement and apply the concepts and principles of the body’s metabolic response to short-term and long-term physical activity. Students are good leaders and good followers; they respect others, and anticipate and avoid unsafe physical activity situations. They develop the ability to understand and they anticipate how physical activity interests and abilities change across a lifetime. Students demonstrate competency in lifelong physical activities and plan, implement, self-assess, and modify a personal fitness plan. Students are prepared to lead a physically active lifestyle.
Motor Skill Development
10.1 The student will demonstrate proficiency and apply the concepts and principles of exercise physiology, biomechanics, and anatomy in a variety of lifetime activities that may include outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, selected individual performance activities, and net/wall and target games in at least two self-selected, lifelong, skill-related physical activities.
a) Demonstrate skill attainment in one or more lifetime activities.
b) Apply and demonstrate knowledge of how movement is created, directed, and stabilized in one or more lifetime activities.
c) Identify and demonstrate movement activities in each plane of movement (frontal, sagittal, and transverse) and activities that occur in multiple planes.
d) Demonstrate appropriate and proper use of equipment in one or more lifetime activities.
Anatomical Basis of Movement
10.2 The student will apply knowledge of biomechanics and anatomy and analyze and evaluate the ability to move proficiently and efficiently in a variety of lifetime activities.
a) Explain how the body responds to energy needs for anaerobic and aerobic activities, to include fast and slow-twitch muscle fibers, and anaerobic respiration (ATP-PC and Lactic Acid System) and aerobic respiration.
b) Analyze movement activities for component skills and movement patterns for one or more lifetime activities.
c) Identify and explain the relationship of opposing muscle groups (agonist/antagonist).
d) Design and implement a program for strength and conditioning.
e) Explain why blood pressure is an indicator of personal health.
f) Apply rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and pacing to a conditioning plan that meets the needs of one or more lifetime activities.
10.3 The student will demonstrate the ability to apply basic principles of training and scientific concepts and principles to evaluate current fitness behaviors and identify strategies needed for health-enhancing fitness for the present and into adulthood.
a) Create a fitness and activity plan for the present and a potential plan for the future (postsecondary education, college/career) to address the health-related components of fitness.
b) Use a variety of resources, including available technology, to analyze current fitness and activity levels, and to improve physical activity and personal fitness.
c) Identify fitness needs to prevent health concerns in the present and into the future.
d) Identify the impact of life choices, economics, motivation, accessibility, exercise adherence, and participation in physical activity in college or career settings.
e) Describe components of health-related fitness in relation to one career goal.
f) Explain the impact of physical activity on emotional and social well-being for the present and into the future.
10.4 The student will demonstrate appropriate behaviors in all physical activity settings and the social skills needed to be a contributing member of society.
a) Explain the importance of and demonstrate communication skills in physical activity settings.
b) Explain the importance of critical thinking and problem solving for current and future health and fitness.
c) Identify and avoid potentially dangerous situations in physical activity settings.
d) Explain the importance of understanding cultural diversity for personal health and fitness.
e) Evaluate opportunities for social interaction and social support in a self-selected physical activity or dance.
f) Apply stress-management strategies (e.g., mental imagery, relaxation techniques, deep breathing, aerobic exercise, meditation) to reduce stress.
g) Explain possible benefits of mind-body exercise/activities (e.g., yoga, Pilates, tai chi).
h) Explain the importance of conflict resolution for current and future health and fitness.
10.5 The student will explain the importance of energy balance and evaluate current caloric intake and caloric expenditure to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease for the present and into adulthood.
a) Analyze the relationships among physical activity, nutrition, body composition, and sleep that are optimal for personal health and/or for participation in lifetime activities.
b) Evaluate current activity and intensity levels.
c) Evaluate current and future caloric expenditure and intake needs.
d) Evaluate current and future sleep needs.
e) Evaluate the caloric intake needs for before, during, and after a variety of lifetime activities.
f) Explain energy balance (caloric expenditure vs. caloric intake) in relation to changing needs from adolescence through adulthood.
g) Explain the consequences of over-exercising.
Grade Eleven/Twelve (elective)
Elective physical education courses provide students with the opportunity to participate in physical activities for specific purposes. Students in elective physical education demonstrate the knowledge and understanding necessary to analyze movement performance in an activity of choice using scientific principles, and implement effective practice procedures for skillful performance in specialized movement forms. Students apply advanced movement-specific information so that they develop the ability to learn, self-assess, and improve movement skills independently. Options for offering specialized-movement courses can be configured by quarter, by semester, or on a full-year basis. Students should be offered the opportunity to self-select an activity throughout the course. Students will select areas of concentration to study. Examples of activity choices:
aquatics (swimming, kayaking, canoeing)
Motor Skill Development
11/12.1 The student will study in-depth and demonstrate mastery of movement skills and patterns in at least one lifetime physical activity per nine-week period.
Demonstrate mastery in all basic skills and movement patterns required for the selected activity and the ability to use the skills with consistency in the appropriate setting.
Identify and apply appropriate skill practice and strategies of the selected activity at an advanced level.
Demonstrate advanced movement patterns in self-selected movement or activity.
Demonstrate the ability to use combined movement skills and strategies in self-selected movement activities.
Analyze movement activities to identify component skills and movement patterns.
Conduct observations and skill analyses of others to improve skill performance.
Create practice and game plans for optimal performance of movement patterns in self-selected sport/activity from the perspective of a coach, personal trainer, athlete, or other sport-related role.
Select and apply appropriate practice procedures to learn skills and movement patterns in activities of personal interest.
Apply appropriate strategies during performance, to include offensive and defensive strategies, game-specific situational strategies, and strategies for working more effectively with team members/partners.
Compare and contrast strategies used in class performance of activities with college-level, pre-professional, or professional levels of activity.
Apply physiological and biomechanical principles to improve performance in sport/activity.
Anatomical Basis of Movement
11/12.2 The student will apply knowledge of body systems and movement principles, and concepts that aid in the improvement of movement skills and performance to specialized movement forms.
Explain and apply biomechanical and physiological principles that aid in the improvement of skills and performance in specialized movement forms, to include laws of motion, leverage, balance, weight transfer, speed, timing, accuracy, force, cardiac output, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), energy systems (aerobic and anaerobic), heart rate (resting, target, and recovery), caloric cost of activity, muscle contraction, static versus dynamic flexibility, and muscular strength versus muscular endurance.
Analyze performance to identify physiological and biomechanical deficiencies to include self-evaluation, peer evaluation, and teacher evaluation.
Explain the rules, safety protocols, relevant markings/lines for the field of play, offensive and defensive tactics, and common penalties and violations for selected activities.
Design, justify, and evaluate warm-up and cool-down sequences for selected activities.
Apply the FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principle to improve skill performance.
Apply the specificity, overload, and progression (SOP) principle to the design and performance of a physical activity program to achieve physical benefits.
Analyze movement activities to identify component skills and movement patterns.
Analyze feedback about personal performance to improve skills including self-evaluation, peer evaluation, and teacher evaluation.
11/12.3 The student will design, implement, and evaluate a personal fitness program for self, a college student, or an employee in a selected field of work.
Assess individual level of health-related fitness using a variety of appropriate measures (e.g., criterion-reference wellness tests, BMI, Fitnessgram®) and technology (heart-rate monitors, pedometers, accelerometers, and bioelectrical impedance).
Evaluate and adjust activity levels to meet personal fitness goals.
Design and critique a personal fitness program, using available technology (e.g., electronic portfolios, tracking applications) and resources, to improve or maintain personal fitness levels in relation to the five components of fitness.
Explain the physical and mental (emotional, social) benefits of physical fitness for lifelong health and wellness.
Create fitness plans for a variety of individuals based on needs and goals.
Identify and evaluate community resources for selected physical and/or lifetime activities, to include recreation centers, local fitness centers, adult leagues, and other fitness clubs/groups.
Identify barriers to physical activity, to include those related to time, motivation, or energy, skill confidence, fear of injury, resources, and social influences/peer pressure, and identify strategies to overcome these barriers.
11/12.4 The student will evaluate and implement a safe environment for skill practice and play and demonstrate social competency skills for lifetime activity participation.
Evaluate, create, and implement a plan for safe practice, to include responsible safety practices, rules and procedures, avoidance of dangerous situations, and strategies for decreasing risk of injury.
Demonstrate appropriate etiquette as a participant and spectator in physical activity/sport.
Demonstrate proper care of athletic/activity equipment.
Demonstrate safe behavior when participating in or watching physical activity/sport.
Explain and demonstrate leadership skills of problem solving, communication, and conflict resolution.
Demonstrate the ability to work cooperatively to accomplish a group goal.
Advocate for rule change or modification in a sport or activity to facilitate safety or inclusion of individuals from the point of view of an athlete, coach, parent, or referee.
Demonstrate respect for differences among people in physical activity settings.
Develop and demonstrate strategies for inclusion of persons of diverse backgrounds and abilities.
Identify ways that physical activities can provide positive social interaction, such as the benefits of team involvement and an individual’s role as a positive member of a group.
Create and implement a strategy to promote peer involvement in physical activity, such as social-networking campaign, a video announcement, or physical activity Web presence.
11/12.5 The student will explain the importance of energy balance and demonstrate understanding of the nutritional needs of the body to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease for a lifetime.
Analyze the relationships among physical activity, nutrition, body composition, and sleep that are optimal for personal health and/or for participation in a self-selected physical activity.
Analyze current and changing activity and exercise levels for high school and college students or for employees in a chosen field.
Analyze current and future nutritional needs in relation to changes in growth/aging.
Explain the benefits of nutrient-dense, low-sodium foods versus high-calorie, nutrition-poor, and high-sodium foods.
Analyze current and future sleep needs for positively impacting academic and career success.
Apply rate of perceived exertion and pacing to a conditioning plan that meets the needs of a self-selected physical activity.
Explain energy balance in relation to changing lifestyle needs from adolescence to adulthood.
Explain the relationship between caloric intake and caloric expenditure while at work and at rest.
Personal Fitness I/II (elective)
Personal Fitness is an elective physical education course that focuses on fitness, strength training, physical conditioning, and lifetime health concepts, activities and knowledge to promote health and wellness. This course is structured to develop individualized knowledge of weight training and physical conditioning for the beginning student and the advanced student. The course requires mastery of training principles and thorough understanding of fitness center safety rules prior to participation in weight room laboratory experiences. The course content is presented so that teachers may select strategies and instructional techniques designed to improve muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Students will gain the necessary information and skills to plan and implement a personal fitness and conditioning program that includes skill- and health-related fitness components to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness for a lifetime. Various training models will be presented that allow flexibility of instruction among diverse student needs. Students will continue to implement and modify personal fitness and conditioning programs.
Motor Skill Development
PF.1 The student will demonstrate mastery of movement skills and patterns used to perform a variety of strength training, physical conditioning, and fitness-based activities.
Demonstrate proficiency in personal fitness (strength training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities), through execution of appropriate basic and advanced skills, use of knowledge related to an activity to enhance performance, development of motor skills for a high level of participation, consistent and correct performance of skills, understanding motor cues and how to correct performance problems, displaying effort to learn and apply new skills, participating confidently with peers, applying skills to the development of a personal fitness program, possessing necessary physical fitness for vigorous participation, and correct selection of appropriate exercises based on personal goals and ability.
Explain the importance of and demonstrate proficiency in a variety of activities that contribute to improvement of each component of health-related and skill-related fitness.
Explain the relationship between health-related fitness activities and health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and joint pain.
Demonstrate a variety of activities that contribute to improvement of each component of skill-related fitness.
Demonstrate correct techniques, form, and exercise procedures when performing strength training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities and exercises.
Describe and demonstrate a variety of assessment activities that contribute to the development and improvement of health- and skill-related fitness components and personal fitness goals.
Apply movement principles and concepts to skill performance of strength training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities.
Anatomical Basis of Movement
PF.2 The student will describe major body systems and explain the effects of physical activity on the systems.
Describe the muscular system, including identification of the major muscles/muscle groups of the body and their function.
Describe exercises/activities that increase the strength and flexibility of the muscular system.
Describe the cardiovascular system, including identification of organs and their functions.
Explain the effects of physical activity and training on the muscular and cardiovascular systems.
PF.3 The student will create a personal fitness and conditioning program for skill- and health-related components of fitness.
Plan and describe a personal fitness and physical conditioning program that includes skill- and health-related fitness components to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness for a lifetime.
Design, monitor, assess, and modify a personal fitness and physical conditioning program.
Apply principles of training for planning and modifying levels of physical activity in personal fitness and physical conditioning plans.
Evaluate a variety of strength-training programs and design a personal strength training program.
Analyze different activities and sports for their contributions to the development of specific health- and skill-related fitness components.
Use technology to assess, improve, and maintain personal health- and skill-related fitness levels.
Evaluate fitness and physical conditioning programs, products, and services to become an informed consumer.
PF.4 The student will demonstrate social-competency skills in physical activity settings.
Explain and demonstrate appropriate etiquette that exhibits respects for self and others within school and recreational fitness activity settings.
Demonstrate safe practices, rules, and procedures in a physical activity setting.
Explain the importance of inclusive and helpful behaviors in school and recreational fitness activity settings.
PF.5 The student will explain energy balance in relation to health-enhancing nutritional and activity practices.
Analyze nutrient needs and sound nutritional practices associated with physical activity and fitness.
Analyze the consequences and risks associated with an inactive lifestyle.
Analyze the benefits gained from participation in strength training, conditioning, and fitness programs.
Explain the role of nutrition and fitness in relation to weight management.
Evaluate the risks of performance-enhancing (ergogenic) supplements.